Inference in First-Order Logic MCQs | Artificial Intelligence

By: Prof. Fazal Rehman Shamil

 

Inference in First-Order Logic solved MCQs of Artificial Intelligence (Questions answers).

Which of the following are the two elementary types of inferences?

(A). Reduction to propositional logic, Manipulate rules directly

(B). Reduction to propositional logic, Apply modus ponen

(C). Apply modus ponen, Manipulate rules directly

(D). Convert each rule to Horn Clause, Reduction to propositional logic

(E). None of these

MCQ Answer: a


The rule of Universal Instantiation (UI for short) states that we can infer any sentence gained by substituting a term without variables for the variable.

(A). True

(B). False

(C). Partially true

MCQ Answer: a


Translate the given statement into FOL.

“For each a, if a is a student of masters, then a has a bachelors degree”

(A). ∀ a masters((A). -> bachelors ((A).

(B). ∃ a masters((A). -> bachelors ((A).

(C). A is true, B is true

(D). A is false, B is false

(E). None of these

MCQ Answer: a


Which of the following is not the style of inference?

(A). Forward Chaining

(B). Backward Chaining

(C). Resolution Refutation

(D). Modus Ponen

(E). None of these

MCQ Answer: d


The corresponding Existential Instantiation rule: for the existential quantifier is a little more complex. For any variable v, sentence a, and constant symbol k that does not appear somewhere else in the knowledge base.

(A). True

(B). False

(C). Partially true

MCQ Answer: a


Which of the following could the Existential instantiation of ∃x Cap(x) ^ OnHead(x, Johnny)?

(A). Cap (John) ^ OnHead(John, Jonny)

(B). Cap (y) ^ OnHead(y, y, x)

(C). Cap(x) ^ OnHead(x, Jonny)

(D). None of these

(E). None of these

MCQ Answer: a


If we want to utilize generalized Modus Ponens, each sentence in the KB essentially be in the form of Horn sentences.

(A). True

(B). False

(C). Partially true

MCQ Answer: a


Which of the following could be the universal instantiation of

For all x Prince(x) ^ Greedy(x) => Evil(x)

(A). Prince (Saqib) ^ Greedy(Saqib) => Evil(Saqib)

(B). Prince (y) ^ Greedy(y) => Evil(y)

(C). Prince (Richar(D). ^ Greedy(Richar(D). => Evil(Richar(D).

(D). All of these

(E). None of these

MCQ Answer: d


Lifted inference rules need discovering the substitutions that make dissimilar logical expressions that have a similar appearance.

(A). Existential Instantiation

(B). Universal Instantiation

(C). Unification

(D). Modus Ponen

(E). None of these

MCQ Answer: c


For a resolution to apply, each sentence essentially is in conjunctive normal form, the conjunction of disjunctions of literals.

(A). True

(B). False

(C). Partially true

MCQ Answer: a

Prof. Fazal Rehman Shamil