Bottomup parsing. BottomUp Parsing. Recall. Goal: For a grammar G, withstartsymbols, any string α such that S α is called a sentential form


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1 Bottomup parsing Bottomup parsing Recall Goal: For a grammar G, withstartsymbols, any string α such that S α is called a sentential form If α V t,thenα is called a sentence in L(G) Otherwise it is just a sentential form (not a sentence in L(G)) A leftsentential form is a sentential form that occurs in the leftmost derivation of some sentence. A rightsentential form is a sentential form that occurs in the rightmost derivation of some sentence. Given an input string w and a grammar G, construct a parse tree by starting at the leaves and working to the root. The parser repeatedly matches a rightsentential form from the language against the tree s upper frontier. At each match, it applies a reduction to build on the frontier: each reduction matches an upper frontier of the partially built tree to the RHS of some production each reduction adds a node on top of the frontier The final result is a rightmost derivation, in reverse. Compiler Construction 1 1 Compiler Construction 1 2
2 Example Handles Consider the grammar 1 S aabe 2 A Abc 3 b 4 B d and the input string abbcde Prod n. Sentential Form 3 a b bcde 2 a Abc de 4 aa d e 1 aabe S The trick appears to be scanning the input and finding valid sentential forms. Whatarewetryingtofind? A substring α of the tree s upper frontier that: matches some production A α where reducing α to A is one step in the reverse of a rightmost derivation We call such a string a handle. Formally: a handle of a rightsentential form γ is a production A β and a position in γ where β may be found and replaced by A to produce the previous rightsentential form in a rightmost derivation of γ i.e., if S rm αaw rm αβw then A β in the position following α is a handle of αβw Because γ is a rightsentential form, the substring to the right of a handle contains only terminal symbols. Compiler Construction 1 3 Compiler Construction 1 4
3 Handles Handles S Theorem: If G is unambiguous then every rightsentential form has a unique handle. Proof: (by definition) α 1. G is unambiguous rightmost derivation is unique A β w 2. a unique production A β applied to take γ i 1 to γ i 3. a unique position k at which A β is applied 4. a unique handle A β The handle A β in the parse tree for αβw Compiler Construction 1 5 Compiler Construction 1 6
4 Example Handlepruning The leftrecursive expression grammar (original form) 1 <goal> ::= <expr> 2 <expr> ::= <expr> + <term> 3 <expr>  <term> 4 <term> 5 <term> ::= <term> * <factor> 6 <term> / <factor> 7 <factor> 8 <factor> ::= num 9 id Prod n. Sentential Form <goal> 1 <expr> 3 <expr>  <term> 5 <expr>  <term> * <factor> 9 <expr>  <term> * id 7 <expr>  <factor> * id 8 <expr>  num * id 4 <term>  num * id 7 <factor>  num * id 9 id  num * id The process to construct a bottomup parse is called handlepruning. To construct a rightmost derivation S = γ 0 γ 1 γ 2... γ n we set i to n and apply the following simple algorithm for i = n downto 1 1. find the handle A i β i in γ i 2. replace β i with A i to generate γ i 1 This takes 2n steps, where n is the length of the derivation Compiler Construction 1 7 Compiler Construction 1 8
5 Stack implementation Example: back to x  2 * y One scheme to implement a handlepruning, bottomup parser is called a shiftreduce parser. Shiftreduce parsers use a stack and an input buffer 1. initialize stack with $ 2. Repeat until the top of the stack is the goal symbol and the input token is $ (a) find the handle if we don t have a handle on top of the stack, shift an input symbol onto the stack (b) prune the handle if we have a handle A β on the stack, reduce i. pop β symbols off the stack ii. push A onto the stack 1 <goal> ::= <expr> 2 <expr> ::= <expr> + <term> 3 <expr>  <term> 4 <term> 5 <term> ::= <term> * <factor> 6 <term> / <factor> 7 <factor> 8 <factor> ::= num 9 id Stack Input Actio $ id  num * id shift $id  num * id redu $<factor>  num * id redu $<term>  num * id redu $<expr>  num * id shift $<expr>  num * id shift $<expr>  num * id redu $<expr>  <factor> * id redu $<expr>  <term> * id shift $<expr>  <term> * id shift $<expr>  <term> * id redu $<expr>  <term> * <factor> redu $<expr>  <term> redu $<expr> redu $<goal> acce Compiler Construction 1 9 Compiler Construction 1 10
6 Shiftreduce parsing LR parsing Shiftreduce parsers are simple to understand A shiftreduce parser has just four canonical actions: 1. shift next input symbol is shifted onto the top of the stack 2. reduce right end of handle is on top of stack; locate left end of handle within the stack; pop handle off stack and push appropriate nonterminal LHS 3. accept terminate parsing and signal success 4. error call an error recovery routine Key insight: recognize handles with a DFA: DFA transitions shift states instead of symbols The skeleton parser: push s 0 token = next_token() repeat forever s = top of stack if action[s,token] == " shift s i " then push s i token = next_token() else if action[s,token] == " reduce A then pop β states s = top of stack push goto[s,a] else if action[s, token] == " accept" the return else error() This takes k shifts, l reduces, and 1 accept, where k is the length of the input string and l is the length of the reverse rightmost derivation accepting states trigger reductions Compiler Construction 1 11 Compiler Construction 1 12
7 Example tables Example using the tables state ACTION GOTO id + * $ <expr> <term> <factor> 0 s acc 2 s5 r3 3 r5 s6 r5 4 r6 r6 r6 5 s s r2 8 r4 r4 The Grammar 1 <goal> ::= <expr> 2 <expr> ::= <term> + <expr> 3 <term> 4 <term> ::= <factor> * <term> 5 <factor> 6 <factor> ::= id Stack Input Action $0 id * id + id$ s4 $04 * id + id$ r6 $03 * id + id$ s6 $036 id + id$ s4 $ id $ r6 $ id $ r5 $ id $ r4 $02 + id $ s5 $025 id $ s4 $0254 $ r6 $0253 $ r5 $0252 $ r3 $0257 $ r2 $01 $ acc Note: This is a simple little rightrecursive grammar. It is not the same grammar as in previous lectures. Compiler Construction 1 13 Compiler Construction 1 14
8 Why study LR grammars? LR parsing LR(1) grammars are often used to construct parsers. We call these parsers LR(1) parsers. used to be everyone s favourite parser (but topdown is making a comeback with JavaCC) virtually all contextfree programming language constructscanbeexpressedinanlr(1)form LR grammars are the most general grammars parsable by a deterministic, bottomup parser efficient parsers can be implemented for LR(1) grammars LR parsers detect an error as soon as possible in a lefttoright scan of the input LR grammars describe a proper superset of the languages recognized by predictive (i.e., LL) parsers LL(k): recognize use of a production A β seeing first k symbols of β LR(k): recognize occurrence of β (the handle) having seen all of what is derived from β plus k symbols of lookahead Three commonly used algorithms are used to build tables for an LR parser: 1. SLR(1) smallest class of grammars smallest tables (number of states) simple, fast construction 2. LR(1) full set of LR(1) grammars largest tables (number of states) slow, large construction 3. LALR(1) intermediate sized set of grammars same number of states as SLR(1) canonical construction is slow and large better construction techniques exist An LR(1) parser for either Algol or Pascal has several thousand states, while an SLR(1) or LALR(1) parser for the same language may have several hundred states. Compiler Construction 1 15 Compiler Construction 1 16
9 LR(k) items Example The table construction algorithms use sets of LR(k) items or configurations to represent the possible states in a parse. An LR(k) item is a pair[α, β], where α is a production from G with a at some position in the RHS, marking how much of the RHS of a production has already been seen β is a lookahead string containing k symbols (terminals or $) Two cases of interest are k =0and k =1: LR(0) items play a key role in the SLR(1) table construction algorithm. LR(1) items play a key role in the LR(1) and LALR(1) table construction algorithms. The indicates how much of an item we have seen at a given state in the parse: [A XY Z] indicates that the parser is looking for a string that can be derived from XY Z [A XY Z] indicates that the parser has seen a string derived from XY and is looking for one derivable from Z LR(0) items: (no lookahead) A XY Z generates 4 LR(0) items: 1. [A XY Z] 2. [A X YZ] 3. [A XY Z] 4. [A XY Z ] Compiler Construction 1 17 Compiler Construction 1 18
10 The characteristic finite state machine (CFSM) The CFSM for a grammar is a DFA which recognizes viable prefixes of rightsentential forms: A viable prefix is any prefix that does not extend beyond the handle. It accepts when a handle has been discovered and needs to be reduced. To construct the CFSM we need two functions: closure0(i) to build its states closure0 Given an item [A α Bβ], its closure contains the item and any other items that can generate legal substrings to follow α. Thus, if the parser has viable prefix α on its stack, the input should reduce to Bβ (or γ for some other item [B γ] in the closure). function closure0(i) repeat if [A α B β] I add [B γ] to I until no more items can be added to I return I goto0(i,x) to determine its transitions Compiler Construction 1 19 Compiler Construction 1 20
11 goto0 Building the LR(0) item sets Let I be a set of LR(0) items and X be a grammar symbol. Then, GOTO(I,X) is the closure of the set of all items [A αx β] such that [A α Xβ] I If I is the set of valid items for some viable prefix γ, then GOTO(I,X) is the set of valid items for the viable prefix γx. GOTO(I,X) represents state after recognizing X in state I. function goto0(i,x) let J be the set of items [A α X β] such that [A α X β] I return closure0(j) We start the construction with the item [S S$], where S is the start symbol of the augmented grammar G S is the start symbol of G $ represents EOF To compute the collection of sets of LR(0) items function items(g ) s 0 = closure0({[s S$]}) S = {s 0 } repeat for each set of items s S for each grammar symbol X if goto0(s, X) and goto0(s, X) add goto0(s, X) to S until no more item sets can be added to return S Compiler Construction 1 21 Compiler Construction 1 22
12 I 0 : I 1 : S E$ E E + T E T T id T (E) S E $ E E +T S E$ E E + T T id T (E) LR(0) example 1 S E$ 2 E E + T 3 T 4 T id 5 (E) I 4 : I 5 : I 6 : I 2 : I 7 : I 3 : I 8 : I 9 : The corresponding CFSM: id id E T ( id ( T E E E + T T id T ( E) E E + T E T T id T (E) T (E ) E E +T T (E) E T ( Constructing the LR(0) parsing table 1. construct the collection of sets of LR(0) items for S 2. state i of the CFSM is constructed from I i (a) [A α aβ] I i and goto0(i i,a)=i j ACTION[i, a] = shift j (b) [A α ] I i,a S ACTION[i, a] = reduce A α, a (c) [S S$ ] I i ACTION[i, a] = accept, a 3. goto0(i i,a)=i j GOTO[i, A] =j 4. set undefined entries in ACTION and GOTO to error 5. initial state of parser s 0 is closure0([s S$]) $ T ) Compiler Construction 1 23 Compiler Construction 1 24
13 LR(0) example Conflicts in the ACTION table 9 T ( T id id ( If the LR(0) parsing table contains any multiplydefined ACTION entries then G is not LR(0) Two conflicts arise: 1 2 E $ id T state ACTION GOTO id ( ) + $ S E T 0 s5 s s3 s2 2 acc acc acc acc acc 3 s5 s6 4 4 r2 r2 r2 r2 r2 5 r4 r4 r4 r4 r4 6 s5 s s8 s3 8 r5 r5 r5 r5 r5 9 r3 r3 r3 r3 r3 ( 7 8 E ) shiftreduce : both shift and reduce possible in same item set reducereduce : more than one distinct reduce action possible in same item set Conflicts can be resolved through lookahead in ACTION. Consider: A ɛ aα shiftreduce conflict a:=b+c*d requires lookahead to avoid shiftreduce conflict after shifting c (need to see * to give precedence over +) Compiler Construction 1 25 Compiler Construction 1 26
14 A simple approach to adding lookahead: SLR(1) Add lookaheads after building LR(0) item sets Constructing the SLR(1) parsing table: 1. construct the collection of sets of LR(0) items for G 2. state i of the CFSM is constructed from I i (a) [A α aβ] I i and goto0(i i,a)=i j ACTION[i, a] = shift j, a $ (b) [A α ] I i,a S ACTION[i, a] = reduce A α, a FOLLOW(A) (c) [S S $] I i ACTION[i, $] = accept 3. goto0(i i,a)=i j GOTO[i, A] =j 4. set undefined entries in ACTION and GOTO to error 5. initial state of parser s 0 is closure0([s S$]) From previous example 1 S E$ 2 E E + T 3 T 4 T id 5 (E) id id FOLLOW(E) =FOLLOW(T )={$,+,)} state ACTION GOTO id ( ) + $ S E T 0 s5 s s3 acc 2 3 s5 s6 4 4 r2 r2 r2 5 r4 r4 r4 6 s5 s s8 s3 8 r5 r5 r5 9 r3 r3 r3 E $ T ( id 4 T ( T E ) ( Compiler Construction 1 27 Compiler Construction 1 28
15 Example: A grammar that is not LR(0) Example: But it is SLR(1) 1 S E$ 2 E E + T 3 T 4 T T F 5 F 6 F id 7 (E) LR(0) item sets: I 0 : I 1 : I 2 : I 3 : I 4 : I 5 : S E$ E E + T E T T T F T F F id F (E) S E $ E E +T S E$ E E + T T T F T F F id F (E) T F F id I 6 : I 7 : I 8 : I 9 : I 10 : I 11 : I 12 : FOLLOW E {+,),$} T {+,*,),$} F {+,*,),$} F ( E) E E + T E T T T F T F F id F (E) E T T T F T T F F id F (E) T T F F (E) E E + T T T F F (E ) E E +T state ACTION GOTO + * id ( ) $ S E T 0 s5 s s3 acc 2 3 s5 s r5 r5 r5 r5 5 r6 r6 r6 r6 6 s5 s r3 s8 r3 r3 8 s5 s6 9 r4 r4 r4 r4 10 r7 r7 r7 r7 11 r2 s8 r2 r2 12 s3 s10 Compiler Construction 1 29 Compiler Construction 1 30
16 Example: A grammar that is not SLR(1) Consider: Its LR(0) item sets: I 0 : S S$ S L = R S R L R L id R L I 1 : S S $ I 2 : S L = R R L I 3 : S R Consider I 2 : S L = R R L R id R L I 4 : I 5 : I 6 : I 7 : I 8 : I 9 : L R R L L R L id L id S L = R R L L R L id L R R L S L = R = FOLLOW(R) (S L = R R = R) LR(1) items An LR(1) item is one in which All the lookahead strings are constrained to have length 1 Look something like [A X YZ,a] What s the point of the lookahead symbols? carry along to choose correct reduction when there is a choice lookaheads are bookkeeping, unless item has at right end: in [A X YZ,a], a has no direct use in [A XY Z,a], a is useful allows use of grammars that are not uniquely invertible 1 The point: For [A α,a] and [B α,b], we can decide between reducing to A or B by looking at limited right context RHS 1 a grammar is uniquely invertible if no two productions have the same Compiler Construction 1 31 Compiler Construction 1 32
17 closure1(i) goto1(i) Givenanitem[A α Bβ,a], its closure contains the item and any other items that can generate legal substrings to follow α. Thus, if the parser has viable prefix α on its stack, the input should reduce to Bβ (or γ for some other item [B γ,b] in the closure). function closure1(i) repeat if [A α Bβ,a] I add [B γ,b] to I, where b FIRST(β a) until no more items can be added to I return I Let I be a set of LR(1) items and X be a grammar symbol. Then, GOTO(I,X) is the closure of the set of all items [A αx β,a] such that [A α Xβ,a] I If I is the set of valid items for some viable prefix γ, then GOTO(I,X) is the set of valid items for the viable prefix γx. GOTO(I,X) represents state after recognizing X in state I. function goto1(i,x) let J be the set of items [A α X β,a] such that [A α Xβ,a] return closure1(j) Compiler Construction 1 33 Compiler Construction 1 34
18 Building the LR(1) item sets for grammar G We start the construction with the item [S S, $], where S is the start symbol of the augmented grammar G S is the start symbol of G $representseof To compute the collection of sets of LR(1) items function items(g ) s 0 = closure1({[s S, $]) S = {s 0 } repeat for each set of items s S for each grammar symbol X if goto1(s, X) and goto1(s, X)/ S add goto1(s, X) to S until no more item sets can be added to S return S Constructing the LR(1) parsing table Build lookahead into the DFA to begin with 1. construct the collection of sets of LR(1) items for G 2. state i of the LR(1) machine is constructed from I i (a) [A α aβ, b] I i and goto1(i i,a)=i j ACTION[i, a] = shift j (b) [A α,a] I i,a S ACTION[i, a] = reduce A α (c) [S S, $] I i ACTION[i, $] = accept 3. goto1(i i,a)=i j GOTO[i, A] =j 4. set undefined entries in ACTION and GOTO to error 5. initial state of parser s 0 is closure1([s S, $]) Compiler Construction 1 35 Compiler Construction 1 36
19 Back to previous example (/ SLR(1)) Its LR(1) item sets: S L = R R L R id R L I 0 : S S, $ S L = R, $ S R, $ L R, = L id, = R L, $ L R, $ L id, $ I 1 : S S, $ I 2 : S L = R, $ R L, $ I 3 : S R, $ I 4 : L R, =$ R L, =$ L R, =$ L id, =$ I 2 no longer has shiftreduce conflict: reduce on $, shift on = I 5 : L id, =$ I 6 : S L = R, $ R L, $ L R, $ L id, $ I 7 : L R, =$ I 8 : R L, =$ I 9 : S L = R, $ I 10 : R L, $ I 11 : L R, $ R L, $ L R, $ L id, $ I 12 : L id, $ I 13 : L R, $ Example: back to the SLR(1) expression grammar In general, LR(1) has many more states than LR(0)/SLR(1): LR(1) item sets: I 0 : S E, $ E E + T,+$ E T, +$ T T F, *+$ T F, *+$ F id, *+$ F (E), *+$ 1 S E 2 E E + T 3 T 4 T T F 5 F 6 F id 7 (E) I 0 :shifting( S ( E), *+$ E E + T,+) E T, +) T T F, *+) T F, *+) F id, *+) F (E), *+) I 0 S ( E), *+) E E + T,+) E T, +) T T F, *+) T F, *+) F id, *+) F (E), *+) Compiler Construction 1 37 Compiler Construction 1 38
20 Another example LALR(1) parsing Consider: LR(1) item sets: I 0 : S S, $ S CC, $ C cc, cd C d, cd I 1 : S S, $ I 2 : S C C, $ C cc, $ C d, $ I 3 : C c C, cd C cc, cd C d, cd I 4 : C d, cd I 5 : S CC, $ I 6 : C c C, $ C cc, $ C d, $ I 7 : C d, $ I 8 : C cc, cd I 9 : C cc, $ 0 S S 1 S CC 2 C cc 3 d state ACTION GOTO c d $ S C 0 s3 s acc 2 s6 s7 5 3 s3 s4 8 4 r3 r3 5 r1 6 s6 s7 9 7 r3 8 r2 r2 9 r2 Define the core of a set of LR(1) items to be the set of LR(0) items derived by ignoring the lookahead symbols. Thus, the two sets {[A α β,a], [A α β,b]}, and {[A α β,c], [A α β,d]} havethesamecore. Key idea: If two sets of LR(1) items, I i and I j, have the same core, we can merge the states that represent them in the ACTION and GOTO tables. Compiler Construction 1 39 Compiler Construction 1 40
21 LALR(1) table construction LALR(1) table construction To construct LALR(1) parsing tables, we can insert a single step into the LR(1) algorithm (1.5) For each core present among the set of LR(1) items, find all sets having that core and replace these sets by their union. The goto function must be updated to reflect the replacement sets. The resulting algorithm has large space requirements. The revised (and renumbered) algorithm 1. construct the collection of sets of LR(1) items for G 2. for each core present among the set of LR(1) items, find all sets having that core and replace these sets by their union. (Update the goto function incrementally) 3. state i of the LALR(1) machine is constructed from I i (a) [A α aβ, b] I i and goto1(i i,a)=i j ACTION[i, a] = shift j (b) [A α,a] I i,a S ACTION[i, a] = reduce A α (c) [S S, $] I i ACTION[i, $] = accept 4. goto1(i i,a)=i j GOTO[i, A] =j 5. set undefined entries in ACTION and GOTO to error 6. initial state of parser s 0 is closure1([s S, $]) Compiler Construction 1 41 Compiler Construction 1 42
22 Example The role of precedence Reconsider: LR(1) item sets: I 0 : S S, $ S CC, $ C cc, cd C d, cd I 1 : S S, $ I 2 : S C C, $ C cc, $ C d, $ I 3 : C c C, cd 0 S S 1 S CC 2 C cc 3 d cd cd cd C cc, C d, I 4 : C d, I 5 : S CC, $ I 6 : C c C, $ C cc, $ C d, $ I 7 : C d, $ I 8 : C cc, cd I 9 : C cc, $ Merged states: I 36 : C c C, cd$ C cc, cd$ C d, cd$ I 47 : C d, cd$ I 89 : C cc, cd$ state ACTION GOTO c d $ S C 0 s36 s acc 2 s36 s s36 s r3 r3 r3 5 r1 89 r2 r2 r2 Precedence and associativity can be used to resolve shift/reduce conflicts in ambiguous grammars. lookahead with higher precedence shift same precedence, left associative reduce Advantages: more concise, albeit ambiguous, grammars shallower parse trees fewer reductions Classic application: expression grammars With precedence and associativity, we can use: E E E E/E E + E E E (E) E id num Compiler Construction 1 43 Compiler Construction 1 44
23 Error recovery in shiftreduce parsers Left versus right recursion The problem encounter an invalid token bad pieces of tree hanging from stack incorrect entries in symbol table We want to parse the rest of the file Restarting the parser find a restartable state on the stack move to a consistent place in the input print an informative message (including line number) Right Recursion: needed for termination in predictive parsers requires more stack space right associative operators Left Recursion: works fine in bottomup parsers limits required stack space left associative operators Rule of thumb: right recursion for topdown parsers left recursion for bottomup parsers Compiler Construction 1 45 Compiler Construction 1 46
24 Parsing review Recursive descent A hand coded recursive descent parser directly encodes a grammar (typically an LL(1) grammar) into a series of mutually recursive procedures. It has most of the linguistic limitations of LL(1). LL(k) An LL(k) parser must be able to recognize the use of a production after seeing only the first k symbols of its right hand side. LR(k) An LR(k) parser must be able to recognize the occurrence of the right hand side of a production after having seen all that is derived from that right hand side with k symbols of lookahead. Compiler Construction 1 47
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