difference between deductive and inductive reasoning? Research methods

What is reasoning?

Reasoning is a logical thinking about some facts. Mostly reasoning produces conclusions about the facts.

What are types of reasoning?

  • Deductive reasoning
  • Inductive reasoning


What is deductive reasoning?

Deductive reasoning means to reach a logical conclusion from one or more statements.

If A=B and B=C, then we can say that A=C

What are examples of deductive reasoning;

Example 1:

Statement 1: Teacher teaches the student

Statement 2: Sameed is a teacher and Amir is a student

Deductive reasoning: Smeed teaches the Amir

Example 2:

Statement 1: If exam is in this week, then he will study day and night (Hypothesis)

Statement 2: This is a week of exam (Observation)

Deductive reasoning: This is a week of exam, so he will study day and night (Confirmation)


What is inductive reasoning?

Inductive reasoning is from seen cases to unseen cases. Seen cases provides historical data and with the help of this historical data, we generate some results that can be true or false.

What are examples of inductive reasoning;

Example 1:

Statement 1: In the previous semester, i daily study one hour and i got the A grade. Now i am in new semester and if i study daily one hour than i will got the grade A (Seen case to unseen case).

Statement 2: Yesterday, I purchase this mobile phone in just  200 US Dollar, so when i will visit the market today, i can purchase the same mobile phone in 200 US Dollar(Seen case to unseen case).

Statement 3: Sh ahzeb is a foot ball player and his weight is 70 KG in the previous years 2016. Now in 2017,  his weight should also be 70 KG(Seen case to unseen case).