# MCQs on Algorithms in Parallel and Distributed Computing

What is the main goal of parallel algorithms in distributed computing?

b. Ignoring computational efficiency
c. Maximizing sequential processing
d. Reducing hardware diversity

Which type of parallelism involves breaking down a large task into smaller independent subtasks?

b. Data parallelism
c. Instruction parallelism
d. Pipeline parallelism

What does Amdahl’s Law quantify in parallel computing?

b. Speedup achievable by parallel processing
c. Hardware diversity
d. Sequential processing efficiency

In distributed computing, what is the purpose of the MapReduce algorithm?

b. Fault tolerance
d. Data parallelism

Which algorithmic design approach focuses on minimizing the need for communication between distributed nodes?

a. Divide and conquer
b. Greedy algorithms
c. Message passing
d. Bulk synchronous parallelism

What is the primary advantage of using randomized algorithms in parallel computing?

a. Deterministic behavior
b. Improved fault tolerance
c. Simplicity of implementation

In parallel sorting algorithms, what is a common approach to achieve parallelism?

a. Bubble sort
b. Merge sort
c. QuickSort
d. Bucket sort

Which algorithm is commonly used for solving problems in the P-complete complexity class in parallel computing?

a. Dijkstra’s algorithm
b. Bellman-Ford algorithm
c. Floyd-Warshall algorithm
d. Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP)

In parallel graph algorithms, what does the “graph coloring” technique aim to achieve?

c. Identify connected components
d. Assign colors to vertices with common neighbors

Which parallel algorithm is commonly used for solving linear systems of equations?

a. Jacobi method
b. Gauss-Seidel method
d. Newton-Raphson method

What is the primary focus of the Bulk Synchronous Parallel (BSP) model in algorithm design?

b. Simplifying communication patterns
c. Ignoring fault tolerance
d. Sequential processing efficiency

Which algorithmic paradigm is commonly used for solving problems that can be divided into subproblems of the same type?

a. Divide and conquer
b. Dynamic programming
c. Greedy algorithms
d. Backtracking

In distributed hash tables (DHTs), what is the primary purpose of the Chord algorithm?

b. Fault tolerance
c. Data parallelism

What does the term “embarrassingly parallel” refer to in the context of parallel algorithms?

a. Problems that are inherently sequential
b. Problems with high communication overhead
c. Problems that can be easily divided into independent tasks
d. Problems that are computationally complex

In parallel algorithm design, what is the primary concern addressed by the work-stealing technique?

b. Fault tolerance
d. Data parallelism

Which algorithmic approach is suitable for solving problems with optimal substructure and overlapping subproblems?

a. Divide and conquer
b. Greedy algorithms
c. Dynamic programming
d. Backtracking

What is the primary advantage of using parallel prefix algorithms (scan) in parallel computing?

b. Achieving data parallelism
d. Reducing sequential processing

In parallel computing, what does the term “superstep” refer to in the context of the Bulk Synchronous Parallel (BSP) model?

a. Communication phase
b. Synchronization point
d. Data parallelism

Which parallel algorithm is commonly used for solving problems in the PSPACE complexity class?

a. Monte Carlo method
b. Quicksort
d. Polynomial hierarchy

In parallel computing, what is the purpose of the Butterfly Network in the context of interconnection networks?

a. Achieving data parallelism

Which algorithmic technique is commonly used for solving optimization problems by iteratively improving candidate solutions?

a. Divide and conquer
b. Greedy algorithms
c. Dynamic programming
d. Local search algorithms

In parallel computing, what does the term “granularity” refer to in the context of parallel algorithms?

d. Data parallelism

Which algorithm is commonly used for finding the strongly connected components in a directed graph?

a. Dijkstra’s algorithm
b. Bellman-Ford algorithm
c. Kosaraju’s algorithm
d. Prim’s algorithm

What is the primary objective of the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) in distributed computing?

c. Achieving fault tolerance
d. Reducing hardware diversity

In parallel computing, what does the term “blocking” refer to in the context of communication patterns?

d. Data parallelism

Which algorithmic approach is commonly used for solving problems by recursively breaking them into smaller instances?

a. Divide and conquer
b. Greedy algorithms
c. Dynamic programming
d. Backtracking

What is the primary purpose of the Parallel Prefix Sum algorithm (Scan) in parallel computing?

a. Achieving data parallelism
d. Reducing sequential processing

In parallel computing, what does the term “speedup” represent?

a. The reduction in communication overhead
b. The improvement in sequential processing efficiency
c. The increase in computational resources
d. The ratio of the time taken on a single processor to the time taken on multiple processors

Which algorithmic approach focuses on making locally optimal choices at each stage with the hope of finding a global optimum?

a. Divide and conquer
b. Greedy algorithms
c. Dynamic programming
d. Local search algorithms