Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany on March 14, 1879. He was the son of a Jewish Electrical Engineer. He was a theoretical physicist and philosopher of science. As a result of Einstein’s work in particle, energy theory, quantum mechanics, and ultimately the atomic bomb was made possible. His concepts of special and general relativity changed fundamentally how humans perceive the universe. Einstein’s discoveries and inventions work wonders in the field of science and physics. Numerous things and theories have been made possible because of the development in science and physics that were attributed to Albert Einstein. He won the Nobel prize for his contribution in 1921.
Discoveries and Inventions:
Some of Einstein’s inventions and discoveries are,
- Avogadro’s number.
- Quantum Theory of Light.
- Bose-Einstein Condensate.
- Wave-Particle Duality.
- General Theory of Relativity.
- The Photoelectric Effect.
- Brownian Movement.
- Special Theory of Relativity.
A concept in Chemistry is known as “Avogadro’s Number”. According to this concept, there are 6.0221408571023 units in a mole of a substance.
The name given to this concept is based on the name of an Italian scientist Amedeo Avogadro. To characterize the irregular motion of particles in a fluid, Einstein developed Brownian motion, and he came up with a formula for the quantity of Avogadro’s number in terms of quantifiable quantities. This discovery opens up the route for calculating the molar mass of each element listed in the periodic table, or the mass of an atom. He discovered a novel way for the calculations of Avogadro’s number and the size of molecules.
Quantum Theory of Light:
Albert Einstein was the biggest advocate of the Quantum Theory of Light. In 1905, he developed and described the idea that light is made up of energy particles called Photons. He offered a scientific explanation to Plank’s mathematics while suggesting that electromagnetic is indeed granular and comprised of quanta particles with an energy hf. An insight was also provided by him that how metals emit electrons when hit by powerful electronic impulses such as lightning. This was acknowledged as the Photoelectric effect and we were awarded technology initially in the form of TV and later smartphones, computers, laptops, etc.
The famous Indian scientist and mathematician Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein jointly reinforced the concept, that helps to comprehend light as a gas. The Bose-Einstein theory was when we cooled atoms to absolute zero their slow movement didn’t allow them to come in contact with each other. By this, scientists concluded that clusters of atoms interact and demonstrate the properties of a single atom.
In Quantum Theory of Light Einstein proved and demonstrated that photons are packs of energy but in Wave Particle Duality he insisted that light is both, Wave and Particle and light can also behave in both ways simultaneously. He validates his theory with an experiment using a two-slit setup.
General Theory of Relativity:
The theory of Relativity can also be called General Relativity. It is the geometric theory of gravitation published in 1915. This theory expands on the ideas of special relativity and Newton’s law of universal gravitation that describes gravity as a characteristic of time and space. This theory works wonders in modern physics.
The Photoelectric Effect:
According to Einstein, when a surface receives electromagnetic radiations and releases electrically charged particles, and when light strikes the metal plate in this process, electrons are released from it. These emitted electrons are called Photoelectrons and the effect is Photoelectric Effect.
In his study of Molecular Theory of Liquids, he explains the motion of particles using Brownian Motion. He demonstrated how particles move in zig-zag motion in liquid along with that he also verified the presence of molecules and atoms in particles. Brownian Movement is the most significant discovery of Einstein.
Special Theory of Relativity (E=mc2):
In the Special Theory of Relativity, Einstein explained that time and movement are relative to observers. He describes E=mc2 which means “Energy is equal to mass multiplied by the speed of light square”.
These are some of the discoveries and inventions of Albert Einstein besides that there are many more discoveries and inventions that open a path to a new way of thinking in past as well as in near future.
Relationship between mass and energy, Manhattan Project, Einstein’s refrigerator, the sky is blue, Satnavs and Google Maps, Phone clock, Lasers, Solar Power, Stock Market Forecast, and his theories in the field of physics bring change in atom bomb as well.