What is Base in chemistry?

What is Base in chemistry?

In chemistry, a base is a substance that

  • can receive protons (H+)
  • or give a pair of electrons in chemical reactions.

Bases are usually categorized by their pH, which determine the quantity of hydrogen ions in a solution.

Classification of base

The classification of bases resulted in following types:

Strong bases

Weak bases

Organic bases:

Inorganic bases:

Lewis bases:


Strong bases:

These are bases that completely separate in water to form

  • hydroxide ions (OH-)
  • and cations.

Examples of strong bases include

  • potassium hydroxide (KOH)
  • and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2).

Weak bases:

These are bases that moderately separate in water, and their capacity to accept protons is less . weak bases includes following example:

  • ammonia (NH3)
  • methylamine (CH3NH2)
  • and ethylamine (C2H5NH2).

Organic bases:

These are bases that have carbon atoms in their molecular structure. Organic bases includes examples such as

  • Amine(methylamine (CH3NH2) and pyridine (C5H5N)).

Inorganic bases:

These are bases that do not possess carbon atoms in their molecular structure. Inorganic bases includes following examples, such as

  • sodium hydroxide
  • and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2).

Lewis bases:

These are bases that give a pair of electrons to create  a covalent bond with a Lewis acid.Lewis bases include following given examples:

  • ammonia (NH3)
  • and water (H2O).

properties of base

Bases have several significant properties in chemistry:

  1. Bases have a sour taste and a slippery or soapy feel. Such as
  • soap is a base and can be slippery to the touch.
  1. Bases change red litmus paper blue. This is due to higher pH value of base than acids.
  2. Bases can cancel out the effects of acid in chemical reactions, producing salts and water.
  3. Bases can interact with certain metals to produce hydrogen gas. Such as
  • sodium hydroxide can react with aluminum to form aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) and hydrogen gas (H2).
  1. Bases have a pH value greater than 7 on the pH scale. The pH scale determined

the acidity or basicity of a substance

  • with 7 being neutral
  • values less than 7 being acidic
  • and values greater than 7 being basic or alkaline.
  1. Bases can conduct electricity in solution. This is due to dissociation of bases into ions in water, which permit them to transport an electrical charge.