Principle of forensic science

Let’s discuss the Principles of forensic science.

Forensic science is the application of science to law. The main principles of forensic science are:

  1. Locard’s Exchange Principle: This principle states that when two objects come into contact, there will be an exchange of material between them. It provides a link between physical evidence found at a crime scene with a suspect.
  2. Individualization: Forensic science deals with unique characteristics of evidence that can relate to a specific source or person. Examples of individualization includes;
  • DNA profiling
  • fingerprint analysis
  • and handwriting analysis.
  1. Preservation of Evidence: It is crucial and very necessary to collect, preserve, and document evidence in a manner that remains intact and ensures that it is admissible in court.
  2. Chain of custody: This principle refers to the documentation and tracking of the custody of evidence from collection to its final presentation in court. It ensures that evidence is not changed in any way.
  3. Objective Analysis: Forensic scientists should remain neutral while analyzing evidence. The analysis should be based on scientific methods and techniques so that the results should be reproducible and validated.
  4. Scientific Method: Forensic science involves applying the scientific method to analyze evidence. Analyzing evidence involves many steps. Some of these steps are mentioned below;
  • developing a hypothesis
  • testing it through experiments
  • and evaluating the results to arrive at a conclusion.

Note: The principle of forensic science is built on these two points

  • Cross-transfer creates evidence.
  • Evidence solves crime.