Translation Steps: Beginning, Elongation, Termination, Processing, Translation

What is transcription?

A process in which genetic information present in DNA is used to synthesize a complementary RNA molecule is called transcription.

Steps in translation

  • Beginning:
  • Elongation:
  • Termination:
  • Processing:
  • Translation:


RNA polymerase binds to the promoter, a particular area of DNA, to start transcription. Specific DNA sequences in the promoter mark the beginning of a gene.


RNA polymerase extends the RNA chain by adding nucleotides as it proceeds along the DNA template strand. The nucleotides on the DNA template strand are complementary to those in the other strand.


When RNA polymerase reaches a termination signal, which is a specific DNA sequence that marks the end of the gene, transcription is terminated. The freshly created RNA molecule is then released as the RNA polymerase separates from the DNA template.


To transform the freshly synthesised RNA molecule into a useful mRNA molecule, it passes through a number of processing stages. These procedures involve the removal of introns, which are non-coding regions inside the mRNA molecule, as well as the attachment of a cap and tail to the mRNA molecule.


The mRNA molecule is employed as a template to synthesise a protein during translation, the last stage of gene expression. This procedure takes place on ribosomes, which use the genetic code read from the mRNA molecule to build a particular sequence of amino acids into a protein.

polymer in transcription

The polymer which is involved in transcription is RNA POLYMERASE.

Structure of RNA Polymerase

Four significant domains may be distinguished in the structure of RNA polymerase:

The area of the beta sheet:

The clamp domain:

The wall domain

The funnel domain

The area of the beta sheet:

The enzyme’s active site, which is located in this domain, is where the RNA polymerization reaction takes place.

The clamp domain:

A flexible “clamp” that can open and close to let the DNA template strand enter and exit the active site is found in the clamp domain, which sits at the top of the enzyme.

The wall domain

The enzyme’s side wall domain, or “wall domain,” aids in stabilising the DNA template strand as it enters the active site.

The funnel domain

The funnel domain aids in directing incoming ribonucleotides into the proper location for polymerization. It is situated at the active site’s entrance.

Role of polymer in transcription

During transcription,

  • RNA polymerase binds to a specific DNA sequence called the promoter, which is located upstream of the gene.
  • The RNA polymerase then unwinds the DNA double helix.
  • It uses one strand of DNA as a template to synthesize a complementary RNA molecule.
  • The RNA polymerase adds RNA nucleotides one by one, guided by the DNA template strand.