How polymer is made?


A small repeating subunit called monomer, are chemically linked together to form large molecule which  is called  polymer.

How polymers are formed?

A polymer is formed through a process called polymerization which can be defined as

“A process which permit the small units called monomer to form large bulky molecule through covalent linkage is called polymerization”.

Here are following ways which can be used for the preparation of polymer:

Addition polymerization:

Condensation polymerization:

Radical polymerization:

Ionic polymerization:

Ring-opening polymerization:

Addition polymerization:

When unsaturated monomers, such as alkenes or dienes,reacted together to form polymers this process is called addition polymerization. The reaction happen by

  • the removal of the double bond
  • and the creation of a single bond between two monomers.


Examples of addition polymerization involves the production of

  • Polyethylene
  • Polystyrene
  • and polypropylene.

Condensation polymerization:

The reaction of monomers which contain two functional groups, such as

  • a carboxylic acid group
  • and an alcohol group, to form polymers.

The reaction happen by the removal of a small molecule, such as

  • water or an alcohol
  • and the formation of a covalent bond between the two monomers.

Examples of condensation polymerization involves the production of

  • Nylon
  • polyester,
  • and proteins.

Radical polymerization:

The type of polymerization in which a free radical species start the process of polymerization is called radical polymerization. The free radical itself formed by thermal or photochemical methods, and it interacts with the monomer to form a polymer. Examples of radical polymerization involves the production of

  • polystyrene
  • and polyvinyl chloride.

Ionic polymerization:

When an ionic species, such as a cation or an anion start the process of polymerization then it is called ionic polymerization. The ionic species first react with the monomer to form an intermediate, which further  reacts with another monomer to form a polymer. Examples of ionic polymerization involve the production of

  • polyacrylonitrile
  • and polyvinyl acetate.

Ring-opening polymerization:

This type of polymerization includes the opening of cyclic monomers, such as

  • lactones
  • and lactams, to form linear polymers.

The reaction happen by the cleavage of the cyclic bond and the production of a new bond between two monomers. Examples of ring-opening polymerization include the formation of

  • polyethylene oxide
  • and polycaprolactone.

Importance of polymerization

Polymerization has much importance in numerous field some of them are given below:

Materials science:






Materials science:

Polymerization is necessary for the production of a broad range of materials that we use in everyday life, including

  • Plastics
  • synthetic fibers
  • adhesives
  • coatings
  • and composites.

These materials have specific properties that allow them to use in many different applications, from

  • packaging and construction to
  • automotive and aerospace engineering.


Polymerization is applicable to form biodegradable polymers that can be used to

  • Transport drugs to specific parts of the body
  • for tissue engineering
  • and regenerative medicine.

Polymerization is also used to form medical devices, such as

  • Catheters
  • and artificial joints.

which ought to be biocompatible and have unique mechanical properties.


Polymerization is used to produce materials that can be used in energy applications, such as

  • fuel cells
  • solar cells
  • and batteries.

Polymers can be applicable as

  • insulators and
  • layering in electrical and electronic devices.


Polymerization is a process which can be utilized to form biodegradable polymers that provide aid to lessen the quantity of plastic residue in the atmosphere. These polymers can be built from the sources which can regained, such as `

  • starch or cellulose,

and can be used in applications such as

  • packaging
  • agriculture
  • and consumer goods.


Polymerization can be used to for the preparation of polymers with definite properties, which can be studied and optimized for different applications.