Basic spectroscopy terms

The study of the relationship between electromagnetic radiation and the matter is known as spectroscopy. some important spectroscopic terms are given below

Electromagnetic Radiation: A kind of energy that travel through space with the speed of light is electromagnetic radiation. It includes

  • all forms of radiation
  • including gamma rays
  • and radio waves.

Wavelength: The distance between two successive crusts or troughs is known as the wavelength. It can be measured in different units such as  nanometers (nm) or angstroms (Å)

 Frequency: The number of waves passing a fixed place in a unit of time is known as frequency. The unit of frequency is hertz (Hz) or megahertz (MHz).

Energy: The capacity to perform work is called energy.  It has two units

  • Electron volts
  • joules

Absorption: The process by which energy flow from electromagnetic radiation to matter is known as absorption. A molecule’s electrical or vibrational energy levels may change due to radiation absorption.

Emission: The process by which matter radiates energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation is called emission. A molecule can emit radiation in the form of light or heat.

Spectrum: A spectrum is a group of electromagnetic waves that are typically represented by a graph of strength versus wavelength or frequency. It is possible to determine a sample’s chemical characteristics using its spectrum.

Absorbance: A measurement of how much light is absorbed by a sample is known as absorbance. The absorbance (A), is proportional to the concentration of the absorbing species, and it contains no unit.

Flourescence: The process of absorbing energy and subsequently releasing it as longer-wavelength light,  is known as fluorescence. using fluorescence we can identify and count the molecules in the sample.

Raman scattering: A type of scattering in which a photon engages with a molecule and modifies the energy of the molecule. it can be used to determine a sample’s chemical outlook.