History Of Figer Print

History Of Figer Print

Fingerprints are called as the most important forms of physical evidence in forensic investigation. Its unique characteristics helps a lot in solving crimes. sweat glands in the skin, and the ridges and valleys make up the fingerprint that are determined by genetics and other factors.

Fingerprints are unique characteristics of every individual.Overall, fingerprint analysis is a crucial component of forensic chemistry and has been instrumental in solving many crimes over the years.



The  fingerprints are used as a means of identification in history, dates back to ancient Babylon, but it has limited used on clay tablets only  for business transactions. However, later in 19th century  fingerprints became a powerfull tool in solving of  criminal act and also expand its application in criminal investigation.

Sir Francis Galton: In 1892 a British scientist, published a book entitled “Fingerprints” in which he detailed out the uniqueness and permanence of fingerprints. His work on classification system for fingerprints is still in use today.

Juan Vucetich; An Argentine police official, began using fingerprints to solve crimes. He was the first to use  bloody fingerprint to identify the murderer of two children in 1892.

The use of fingerprints as a means of identification spread quickly as it is  used as reliable evidence and by the early 20th century, it was adopt by law enforcement agencies around the world. In 1901, the first American fingerprint bureau( AFB) was established in New York City, and in 1902, the first British bureau(BB) was established in Scotland Yard.

Technology and fingerprint

In present days finger prints are used as a reliable evidence inidentification of crime by law enforcement agencies. With the  invention of computer technology, the process of collecting and analyzing fingerprints has become faster and more accurate than ever before.



There are three types of fingerprints:

  • arches, loops, and whorls.
  1. Arches: It is the simplest type of fingerprints and make up only about 5% of all fingerprints. They have ridges that enter on one side of the finger and exit on the other side in a smooth, curved line.

Types of arches:

  • plain arches
  • tented arches, which have a spike in the center.
  1. Loops: Loops are the most common type of fingerprint and make major part of finger print almost about 60-65% of all fingerprints. It contain ridges that enter on one side of the finger, curve around, and exit on the same side.

Two types of loops:

  • radial loops which open toward the thumb
  • ulnar loops, which open toward the little finger.
  1. Whorls: Whorls make up about 30-35% of all fingerprints. They have ridges that make a complete circuit and have two deltas, or ridge points where the pattern diverges.

There are four subcategories of whorls:

  • plain whorls
  • central pocket whorls
  • double loop whorls
  • and accidental whorls.

Each person’s fingerprints are uncommon, and the patterns can be used for its identification.


Their classification and comparison is an important tool for law enforcement agencies in the investigation of crimes and In search of criminal.