Waterfall model, advantages, disadvantages, and examples in software engineering

waterfall software model

Waterfall model, advantages, disadvantages, and examples in software engineering.

What is the Waterfall model?

The waterfall model is a software model that can be adapted to produce the software. The main thing is that if the software team adapts the waterfall model for the production of software than proper detailed planning and proper accurate work is needed in every phase of the waterfall model. This is because while following the waterfall model, the software team is not allowed to move to the previous phase.

What are the phases of the waterfall model?

waterfall software model
Figure: waterfall model.

1. Requirement gathering and analysis

In this phase, all the detailed requirements are gathered from the customer who wants to develop the software. After getting the requirements, the system analyst analyses the requirements that whether the requirement can be fulfilled or not. If customer requirements can be fulfilled than whether these requirements are fulfilled within the budget or out of the budget. After this software team moves to the design phase. Software Requirement Specification (SRS) is managed to gather the requirements.

2. Design

Before starting the design, the software team completely gathered all the detailed requirements from the customer and requirement analysis is also completed. In the design phase, the software team designs the software. Different diagrams are also drawn in this phase for software. Some of these are used the class diagram, activity diagram, data flow diagram, state transition diagram, etc.

When a team is completely satisfied with the proposed design, then move to the next phase.

3. Implementation

Before starting implementation, the software team completely design the system and now ready to develop the system. Programs are written and all the designed is converted into computer programs, collectively called software.

When the team is completely satisfied with the developed software, then move to the next phase.

4. Testing

Before starting testing, the software team completely developed all the software. Now its time to test the software by using different software testing techniques. The most common are white box, black box, and gray box testing techniques.

When the team is completely satisfied with the testing and passes the software for implementation, then move to the next phase.

5. Deployment

Before starting the deployment, the software team completely tested all the software. Now its time to install or deploy the software in its working environment.

6. Maintenance

When software is deployed, there can be many bugs, faults or new modification is needed or not? Maintenance includes debugging and new feature addition.

What are the advantages of the waterfall model?

  • Good for small projects
  • Easy to use and follow
  • When you move to the next phase, you have a clear picture of all previous phases.

What are the disadvantages of the waterfall model?

  • Not useful for a large project
  • If frequent requirement changes occur then it is a problem to manage.
  • There is a big problem if testing fails the software.

When to use the waterfall model?

  • For small projects
  • When requirements are clear
  • When customer involvement is less.
  • For low budget projects.

Alternatives to the waterfall model are spiral model, incremental model and agile model etc.

Video Lecture

By:Prof. Fazal Rehman Shamil
CEO @ T4Tutorials
Last Modified: April 18, 2020

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