History of Operating system

History of Operating system

Let’s move to the brief history of the operating system.

In early times if we want to change what computer is doing we have to change the wires but later on, it was replaced by the operating system. The instructions were given to the computer with punch cards and magnetic tape. If we wanted to run the different programs, we have to wipe out the first program from memory and then load another program into memory. To run more than one program at a time, we need a “Boss” program that controls all the other programs “Boss” program is basically an operating system.

Microsoft MS-DOS was one of the first operating systems for a personal computer. No mouse, Instead you had to type a lot of special computer commands. In the 1980s’ operating systems are developed where you could move a mouse around and click on things instead of typing commands.

history of operating system
Figure: History of the operating system

Digital equipment corporation created several operating systems for its 16-bit PDP-11 machine’s the time-sharing operating systems and the RSX-11 family of the real-time operating system.

In the 1970s a new class of Small computers are introduced. Featuring an 8bit processor along with input and output interfaces as much RAM as practical these systems start out as a kit- based hobbyist computers but evolved into essential business tools.  On 20 November 1985’ window 1.0 was released as the first version of the Microsoft Windows line. It was as graphical, 16-bit multiple tasking shells on top of an existing MS-DOS installation

On 15 December 1999 window 2000 was released It was produced by Microsoft it was used is an operating system for use on both client and server computer.  Windows XP is a personal computer operating system. It’s produced by Microsoft. It was released to manufacturing on 24 August 2001.  In 2009 July 22 window 7 was introduced

Windows 7 is a personal computer operating system produced by Microsoft.  Windows 8 is a personal computer operating system and released to manufacturing on 1st August 2012.

It is developed by Microsoft as a Pat of the window NT family of OS. It was released on 29 October 2012its features a flat user interface based on Metro design language. Windows Phone 8 is the second generation of window phone mobile operating systems from Microsoft. Android was released in 2017. Initially developed by Android lnc, Google bought in 2005. Android is a mobile operating system. It is based on Linux kernel and currently by Google with a user interface based on direct manipulation it’s designed primarily touchscreens mobile phones. IoS a type of Operating system like Android enables users to a used smartphone. The main credit for the development of IOS is going to STEVE Jobes. Now, the researchers’ work on artificial intelligence is increasing day by day and the upcoming time is a time of robotics.

History of Windows

Windows were developed by Bill Gates on November 10, 1983.AS these windows release by Microsoft.

They introduce the window as GUI which means it is user-friendly.  The first version of Windows 1.0 release which runs through MS-DOS. After a few time Windows 95 release which also runs on MS-DOS. WINDOW 95 has many advantages and features. The features include the Start menu, Taskbar & Window Explorer. In 1993, Microsoft introduces Windows NT3.1 the first version and first part of the newly introduce window NT operating system. It is a fully 32-bit operating system. In 1996, Windows NT 4.0 introduced, which includes a  fully 32-bit version of Windows Explorer. It makes the operating system just like Windows 95.

Window NT was originally introduced to use on high-end systems and servers. In 2000, the Window 2000 release which is a combo of Window 95 & 98It has many features. These Features include Windows Desktop Updated, Internet Explorer & Window Media Player.

This is a consumer-oriented feature and further introduces a new theme called Luna, a more user-friendly interface. Moreover, the updated version of Windows Media Player & Internet Explorer. In 1999, the Window 98 release. It is the second version of Windows 98. One of the best features is that it has an internet connection feature and it allows many machines on LAN to share one internet connection. Many issues in this version but it is the best and best version also. On February 17, 2000

Windows 2000 released. It has four different service packs. It has been successfully working on different servers and workstations markets. A number of commands and options from Windows 98 in Windows 2000 were improved such as enhance device manager, Window Media Player. Window 2000 is also the last NT-kernel Windows Operating System. Window 2000 has 4 different editions. On October 25, 2001, the window XP introduce in the market. It is the combo 98,95.WindowsXP uses the kernel of Window NT 5.1. This kernel performance is best, so it is used in window XP. Initially, it faces lots of criticism in the field of security. Different versions of Window XP are:

1)Window XP Home Edition, for home use, it is commonly used in the home. It has features such as Remote Desktop.

2)Window XP Professional, which is commonly and mostly use for business purposes. It has also the same features as Windows XP has.

3)Window XP Media Center Edition, introduced in October 2002 for desktops, mainly for the use of home entertainment & problems. It has all features that contained Windows XP Professional.

Other versions include WindowsXP tablet PC Edition, Windows XP Embedded, Windows XP Starter Edition. These editions are used in different fields.

On November 30, 2006, Window Vista developed and enter the market. This Window is introduced in the market for business purposes and entrepreneur purposes. Window Vista improved & developed his security by introducing a new restricted user mod, called User Account Control. Window Vista faces lots of criticism and not like by users.

This criticism creates issues and problems, hence window 7 introduce in the market. One major difference between Vista and the older version of Windows is that the original start button was replaced with the Window icon in a circle and this is called Start Orb. Window Vista also has new features like, the GUI which means it is user-friendly, Windows DVD maker and also include some new games for entertainment purpose. Window Vista transferred in six editions.

Starter, Home Basic, Home Premium, Business, Enterprise. All these editions are available in the market both 32-bit and 64-bit versions except Starter edition. One of the biggest advantages of the 64-bit version is that it hit the barrier of 4 gigabytes, which cannot be accessed by 32-bit version, So 64-bit version becomes popular and hence there is an increase in his demand. On July 22, 2009, Windows 7 was released and available in the market on October 22, 2009. It was known as Vienna. Windows 7 has only one pack. Some features of Window 7 are;

Its boost fast, Device Staging, Windows Powershell and Management of Window Improved.

Window 7 ships in six editions. Starter, Home Basic, Home Premium, Professional, Enterprise, Ultimate. In some countries, there are other editions that lack some features such as window

Media Player, Window Media Center & Internet Explorer. All Editions, except Starter Edition, are available in both 32-bit and 64-bit versions. On April 6, 2011, Window Home released.

Microsoft decided to discontinue Windows home server 2011 on July 5,  2012, as Window Server 2011 is considered a  major release but it supports only 86-84 hardware. Window home supported until April 12, 2016. On October 26, 2012, Microsoft released Windows 8 to the public. Window 8 got fame and it is replaced by Window Home. Windows 8 features a redesigned user interface, design to make it easier for touchscreen users to use the window.

The Start menu is updated known as Start Screen. On the Building Window 8 blog, it was announced that a computer running Window 8 and it boots much faster&faster than Window 7. Windows 8 makes the computer faster and faster. Hence it is better than Window 7. NT 6. 2, the kernel number which is given to Windows 8, with its successor 8. 1 receiving the kernel number 6. 3. Window 8 available in the following editions:

1)Windows 8

2)Windows 8 Pro

3)Windows 8 Enterprise

4) Windows RT

Window 8 Release, Preview & Windows Server 2012 Release Candidate were both released on May 31, 2012. On July 29, 2015, Windows 10, first name become Threshold in the market and later its name changes to Redstone.

It was distributed among Windows 7&8. 1 user free of cost for a few years. Microsoft

claims that Windows 10 is the last major & best version of its series of operating system to be released. Until now, 7 versions of Windows 10 released in October 2018.

These versions are:

1)Version 1507

2)Version 1511

3)Version 1607

4)Version 1703

5)Version 1709

6)Version 1803

7)Version 1809

8)Version 1903

History of LINUX

The history of LINUX starts in 1991 with the entry of a personal project by a college

a student whose name was Linus. LINUX is an operating system. In 1991, Linus starts a project

that became a Linux Kernel. He developed the program especially for the hardware he was using and it does not use the operating system because he wanted to use a function and new development with his new PC with an 80386 processor. In 1992, after the Window XP, LINUX gains importance and got fame in markets. It is most commonly use after Windows. Initially, Linus is the creator of LINUX call his Project “Freax” in earlier days. During the start of his work on the system, he saves and proceeds the files under the name”FREAX” for about half of the year.

But After some period it’s named changed to”LINUX”. Linus introduces the LINUX kernel under its own license registration but not allow to work on commercial activity.

Initially, LINUX was used by LINUS only for the Linux kernel. The kernel was, however, mostly use with other software, especially with GNU. In 1996, LINUX’s name was changed to LINUX. As LINUX and GNU work together and both technically support each other, so ”g” represents GNU but later its change and become LINUX. In

1996, LINUS announced a signature for LINUX, a penguin. The largest part of the workers & peoples works on LINUX. Most of the works performed by the community. Thousands of programmers & workers use Linux and send their suggestions to enhance LINUX and how to make the quality of LINUX good. In 2000, the OSDL(OPEN SOURCE DEVELOPMENT LAB) was created and it is an independent and non-profit organization. The main goal of this lab is to optimize the LINUX & make the LINUX good. On 22 January 2007, OSDL & the free standard group join together and laid a foundation name “The Linux Foundation” to promote LINUX in comparison with Microsoft Windows.

During these days, there is a big fight between Windows and LINUX. So they laid the foundation. Many of the companies invest in Foundation in order to improve the LINUX as it has competition with Microsoft. And also to make it suited for different areas. Some examples are IBM, Dell & Hewlett-Packard. In 1992, some computer scientist and developers make a criticism on LINUX that it was monolithic, its quality is not good and it is old-fashioned.

In 1994 & 1995, many peoples from different countries register LINUX as a trademark. As LINUX got fame in the market, many peoples register in LINUX.

Between 1997 & 2001, there is a tough competition between LINUX & Microsoft window. On 2004, the Microsoft

Published reports and results from customer case studies evaluating the use of Windows vs Linux. Based on facts and analysis, Microsoft claimed that the use of Linux on servers compared unfavorably to the use of windows in terms of reliability, security & total cost of ownership. It means that Windows is too good as compared to LINUX. But in July 2009, Microsoft gives 22, 000 lines of source code to LINUX under the GPLV2 license and hence by 2011, Microsoft becomes the 17 largest contributors to Linux kernel.

As of February 2015, Microsoft was no longer among the top 30 contributing sponsor companies.

In 1994, the first version 1. 0 of LINUX is released. In 1996, the second version 2. 0  of LINUX is released. This version

is better than the first version & its performance is best. The kernel can now handle many and multiple processors at the same time.

Many majors companies such as IBM, Compaq & Oracle announce their support for LINUX. And with the support of such big brands its got fame in the market.

In 2000, Dell announced to support it is now the No. 2 provider of Linux-based systems worldwide.

In 2011, the third version which name is 3. 0 of the LINUX kernel is released. Later, the aggregate LINUX server market.

revenue exceeds the rest of the UNIX market. In 2013, Google’s LINUX-based Andriod claims 75% of smartphone market share. In 2015, the fourth Version 4. 0 of Linux kernel is released.

During the ’90s, LINUX is ported to the DEC Alpha and to the Sun SPARC. Over the following years, it is ported to an ever-greater number of platforms.

History of IOS

IOS is the operating system for mobile phones which is developed by Apple Industry for iPhone, iPod and iPod touch. There are about 13 versions are released up to date in which have each new one has new features and qualities and also ease for use for the consumers. Nowadays IOS users are the second largest users in the world who use the iPhone worldwide. Apple Inc generates more revenue in the mobile industry because of its unique features and secure data possessor in the world.

It’s the operating system on which currently powers the many company’s mobile devices as it is the second biggest operating system used in the world after android. iOS is the name of the operating system that runs the iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad. It’s the core software that comes loaded on all devices to allow them to run and support other apps. The iOS is to the iPhone what Windows is to PCs or Mac OS X is to Mac In 1980 firstly, Apple introduced the “I” branding with iMac. During the announcement, Steve Jobs shared that the primary meaning comes from the marriage of the Internet’s exhilaration, with Macintosh’s simplicity.

Apart from the internet reference and the IMAC’s focus on providing consumers with good online experience, jobs expanded that some other things to us as well. In 1990 exactly one year later, Steve Jobs disclosed the iBook as Apple’s consumer notebook as iMac to go at MAC word. He exposed the iPod at a small media event in 2001. When Steve Jobs started planning the iPhone in 2005, he had the choice either to shrink the MAC, which would be an epic engineering feat or to expand the iPod.

Jobs favored the former approach but challenged the Macintosh and iPod teams, led by Scott Forstall and Tony Fadell, respectively, in an internal competition, with Forstall winning by creating the iPhone OS. June 2007 saw that eventually become IOS officially released at the same time the first iPhone. Apple announced the iPod touch in September 2007, a redesigned iPod based on the iPhone form factor. Apple announced the iPad in January 2010, featuring a larger screen than the iPhone and iPod Touch, designed for web browsing, media consumption, and reading. In June 2010, Apple rebranded the iPhone OS as IOS. Until the official release of the iPhone, the software development kit was on 6 March 2008, IOS did not have an official name. Prior to that, Apple marketing simply stated that the iPhone was running a version of MAC OS X specifically designed for iPhone.

The “I” branding became a household name with the overwhelming popularity of iPod as well when Apple announced its appropriately named smartphones, iPhone in 2007 as one of the three tent pole features was that it was breakthrough Internet communications device at the same time, Apple provides the IOS version for the iPhone and iPod touch model which mean that usually devices released in the same year. June 7, 2010, with iPad announcement and launch the introduction of iPad and the existence of iPod touch meant that the iPhone was not the only device to run the mobile operating system anymore. The first major IOS release reflecting the name change was IOS 4. Apple licensed the Cisco systems “iOS” trademark.

In July 2008, the IOS App store was opened as it started with 500 applicants. This shortly grew to 3000 in 2008 then 150000 in January 2009 then 50,000 in June 2009 and so on increased time by time and in 2017 there were about 2.2 million applicants were registered. it is estimated that the App Store will reach 5 million apps by the year 2020.

Topic Covered: History of the operating system