Beginning of Third Generation Computers:
Between the era of 1965 and 1971, the development of Third Generation Computers took place. The advent of ICs, a revolutionary circuit, separated these computers from the previous generations. An electronic circuit a mini machine, that comprises millions of gadgets like transistors, resistors, and other circuit components is required in the making of a computer. Jack Kilby created the Integrated Circuit or IC chip. Integrated Circuit’s invention has made it possible to compress millions of circuit elements into a confined patch. This creation and pattern compelled computers to shrink into smaller sizes year by year.
Significant reliability and less consumption of electricity were other salient features of these computers. The languages used for these computers were COBOL, FORTRAN-II, FORTRAN-IV, PASCAL, ALGOL-68, and BASIC, apart from these languages there were other programming languages as well.
Here are some examples of 3rd Generation computers:
- IBM System/360
- ICL 2900
Key Features of 3rd Generation computer:
- Instead of transistors, use Integrated Circuits (IC).
- Semiconductor memory application.
- Computers are smaller and lighter.
- Magnetic storage devices have been used.
- Speedier operations and more consistent output.
- Screens and line printers.
- High-level programming languages.
- Less expensive.
- Lower maintenance costs.
The IBM System 370 (S-370) was a generation series of IBM Computer systems launched on June 30, 1970, as the successor of the IBM-360 system’s family. A similarity between this series and the System-360 was maintained so that it may allow the users and customers a reachable transition path, plus with enhanced efficiency: these were the authoritative features of product proclamation. Throughout its almost 20-year rough lifespan, System/370 saw significant design modifications and systematic changes.
The main characteristics of IBM-370 were, moderate size, super high presentation in data processing system included with monolithic automated storage, digital inventory management system, mechanical backup management, and a visual display. These operational features have made it possible for relatively large individuals to use numerous multiple software and technologies.
The PDP-11 itself was a system series of 16-bit minicomputers which have been produced by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1970 to 1990. It was considered a part and parcel of the Programmed Data Processor (PDP) line. It has become one of DEC’s most popular and profitable product lines. According to some analysts, the PDP-11 has become a good deal of minicomputers. In 1970, when PDP was launched, at that time a lot of programming and computing has been performed using costly GE, CDC, and IBM operating system. In that period there were no computers, laptops, or desktops, only a few companies did programs such as FORTRAN and COBOL. For input punch cards were in use and programming has been processed in noninteractive batch mode. There were many added characteristics, such as multiple eight registers, numerous addressing modes, a hardware load, a computer processor failure trap, and an independent messaging path as well.
On April 11, 1964, IBM introduced a series of IBM System/360 and produced it in the era of 1965 to 1978. This computer family was developed to facilitate professional as well as scientific operations along with that it was capable of covering an entire range of small and huge operations. Differences in design between implementation and structure fueled IBM to deliver an escort of similar designs at various rates. IBM’s Solid Logic Technology (SLT) was introduced with the System/360 family, enabling more transistors to be stacked onto a circuit panel. The slowest System/360 version was able to perform approximately 34,500 instructions per second and had memory ranging from 8 to 64 KB.
As a mono processor device UNIVAC-1108 was announced in July 1964.
From classical batch to real-time UNIVAC-1108 was extensively used in a vast spectrum of science, commerce, genuine operations, and telecommunication. At the same time, the multiprocessor version feasibility of 1108 was introduced which was first released in late 1967. 1108 has a storage capacity of 65,536 to 262,144 words. Most of the instruction of 1108 was performed per 750-nanosecond core cycle. Different basic units were installed for the data storage. Despite being engaged in many operations five functions could be running in parallel: three applications in the Central Processing Unit and the rest two input/output activities in the IOCs.
Honeywell 6000 (GE-600) was a series of 36-bit computer systems which was produced by Honeywell Worldwide, Inc. from 1970 to 1989. They were constructed using TTL SSI blended circuits and ferromagnetic core memory. These were the rebadged models of General Electric’s GE-600-series. The architecture of Honeywell was the same as of the IBM 7090. The GE-600, also known as the Honeywell 6000, supported floating point with the mantissa in both 36-bit single-precision and 2 x 36-bit double precision by using 36-bit words and 18-bit addresses, as well as two 36-bit super capacitors A and Q, eight 18-bit index registers X0 – X7, and one 8-bit exponent register.
In late 1960 an engineer Edson de Castro started working on a 16-bit computer. The professional minicomputers were launched in 1982 by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) as a rising opponent to the IBM PC. With DEC 22-bit addressing, DEC microprocessors could reach 4MB.
There were many novel features in these computers that separated them from their contemporaries making them easier to program. Additionally, via memory access, the revolutionary Unibus technique enabled the minicomputer to communicate with external machines. This enabled the DEC series computers to access a diverse spectrum of peripherals.
On October 9, 1974, British company ICL introduced a series of ICL mainframe systems. Incorporating the best concepts from several sources ICL 2900 was created as a hybrid alternative. Many product lines were evaluated for the future when ICL was founded in 1968. Improvements to ICT’s 1900 Sequence were among them. The final alternative was a completely new design: The synthetic Option. As the collection of resources available to software, the 2900 Series architecture employs the framework of a virtual machine. Shared memory is classified into two types: public segments and global segments.