Beginning of 2ND Generation Computer:
Computers from the second generation were created between 1959 and 1965. These computers used transistors rather than vacuum tubes and were more dependable. They were significantly smaller than the first-generation computers as a result. The transistor was created by John Bardeen, William B. Shockley, and Walter H. Brattain at Bell Telephone Laboratories in the middle of the 1940s. These computers took higher-level languages like COBOL, and FORTRAN, as input. These computers employed magnetic discs as secondary storage and magnetic cores and magnetic tape as primary memory storage.
Here are some examples of 2nd Generation computers:
Key Features of 2nd Generation computer:
- Transistor usage.
- Dependable in comparison to older machines.
- Smaller size compared to computers of the first generation.
- Compared to first-generation computers, producing less heat.
- Compared to first-generation computers, using less electricity.
- Quicker than older models of computers.
- Air Conditioner needed.
- High priced.
- Supported assembly and machine languages.
On October 21, 1959, IBM introduced the IBM 1620, which was marketed as a low-cost scientific computer. The IBM 1620 was a general-purpose, stored-program data processing machine designed for small enterprises, major company research and engineering departments, and schools that needed solutions to complicated problems in engineering, research, and management science. IBM 1620 had internal processing rates of 20 microseconds and core storage of up to 20,000 digits, which was increased by the use of an IBM 1623 Core Storage (40,000 digits).
In 1963, IBM’s most powerful scientific computer was the 7094. In one second, it could do 500,000 logical judgments, 250,000 additions and subtractions, 100,000 multiplications, or 62,500 divisions. It had hardware that could perform double-precision floating-point arithmetic. The IBM 7094 Data Processing System was designed for large-scale scientific computing and offered a sales price ratio as well as increased computing power. The sophisticated solid-state IBM 7094, provided significant gains in internal operating speeds and functional capacities to accommodate expanding scientific workloads in the 1960s. Depending on the application, the powerful IBM 7094 had 1.4 to 2.4 times the internal processing speed.
The Control Data Corporation’s (CDC) 1604 was a 48-bit computer created and built by Seymour Cray and his colleagues (CDC) introduced in October 1959. 1604 was one of the first transistor-based computers to be commercially successful. The first 1604 was delivered to the United States Navy Post Graduate School in January 1960 for applications supporting large Fleet Operations Control Centers, particularly weather prediction. The CDC 1604 was also used to process data in real time, control weapons systems, solve large-scale scientific problems, and for commercial purposes. The processor of CDC 1604, which ran at 208 kHz, had a 48-bit accumulator (A), a 48-bit mask register (Q), a 15-bit sequence number (P), and six 15-bit index registers. Internal integer representation made use of one’s complement arithmetic. Memory was made up of 32K 48-bit words of a magnetic core memory with a cycle time of 6.4 microseconds.
The CDC 3600 was a remarkable computer with smoked glass panels and a “solid and appealing” appearance. Seymour Cray has done much of the basic architectural design work on the CDC 3000 series systems. In May 1962, the first Control Data Corporation CDC 3600 was installed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The 3600 was a step forward with an orderly transition to the CDC 6600. The CDC 3600 had 32,700 48-bit words of memory, supported the FORTRAN 66 compiler, and had storage cycle speeds ranging from 1.5 microseconds to.8 microseconds. Seymour Cray designed its circuitry, and he went on to create his series of Cray computers. However, unlike 1604, the 3600 includes built-in double-precision floating-point arithmetic. The current study, which is largely motivated by the results of Maehly and his friends, addresses the expansion of one of Maehly’s ideas to a double-precision subroutine for the 3600.
The UNIVAC 1108 was the second computer in Sperry Rand’s UNIVAC 1100 series, which debuted in 1964. Thin film memory, which the UNIVAC 1107 employed for register storage, was superseded by integrated circuits. In comparison to 1107, smaller and quicker cores were utilized for main memory.
Aside from speedier components, two key design enhancements were implemented: basic registers and more hardware instructions. The two 18-bit base registers ( for instruction and data storage) allowed for dynamic relocation, which meant that as a program was swapped in and out of main memory, its instructions and data may be stored wherever each time it was reloaded. Double precision arithmetic, double word load, store, and comparison instructions were among the additional hardware instructions. For peripherals, the processor may have up to 16 input/output channels.