What is Procedural Language and Non-Procedural Language

By: Prof. Fazal Rehman Shamil

What is Procedural Language and Non-Procedural Language

All the instructions must be written in order and the user has to follow. All the instructions are executed one by one. It has a complete procedure that defines what to do and how to do it. All the instructions are written in a specific order to solve a particular problem. Language is very easily understood by a user because all the instructions are written in order.

Examples of Procedural Language

  1.    FORTRON( formula translation)
  2.  COBOL( common business-oriented language)
  3.  C language
  4.  basic( Beginners All-Purpose  Symbolic Language)

Advantage of Procedural language

  1. It is easy to understand
  2. it is easier to test and debug
  3. it is a well-structured language
  4. Single Programs can be written by more than one program by dividing the program up into modules.
  5. It consists of a step-by-step procedure that is why it is easily understood by any user.
  6. These languages are very flexible.

Disadvantages of Procedural Languages

  1. A big disadvantage of procedural language is the inability to reuse the code.
  2. The same type of code many times throughout a program can add to the development cost and time of a project.
  3. Testing the program is very difficult.
  4. debugging is very difficult.
  5. It is not very fastly executed as compared to the low-level language code.
  6. Another disadvantage of Procedural language is that it struggled to handle the situation in which the number of  possible actions may lead to the desired result

Non-Procedural Languages

In these languages, all the instructions are not written in a specific order. It is also known as a declarative and functional language. The non-procedural language that does not require writing traditional program logic. Users concentrate on defining the input and output rather than the steps of the program. Examples of non-procedural languages are as follows.

  1. Java
  2. C++
  3. SQL(Structured Query Language)
  4. RGP(  report program generator)

Advantages of Non-Procedural Languages

  1. When we write large program it is very difficult to write this program in a procedural language because in a procedural language. We write it’s step-by-step and it becomes very messy.
  2. In non- procedural language The large program is easy to handle.
  3. The nonprocedural language program is written as a different function and modulus that interact with each other.
  4. These languages are easy to understand.
  5.  these languages are used to write large Programs easily.
  6.  The execution time is very fast.

 Disadvantages of Non-Procedural Languages

  1. It is difficult to understand.
  2. it is not very flexible.
  3. For the large program, the code will become very  complex
  4. The syntax of this language is not very easy.

Comparison of Procedural Languages and Non-Procedural Language

Procedural Language Non-Procedural Languages
command-driven language functional driven language
It does not return any data type. if only return, then  restricted data type and allow the values it can return any data type or value.
 its efficiency is high than  non-procedural Its efficiency is a low then procedural language
The program size is very large  the program  size is very small
 it is not suitable for time-critical application it is ideal for time-critical
Loops and recursive calls are both used in procedural languages.  Recursive calls are used in nonprocedural language


Prof. Fazal Rehman Shamil