Beginning of First Generation Computer:
Throughout computer history, we have many examples and generations of computers. The first generation of computers starts in 1946 and lasts till 1959. Computers of the first generation were very huge, slow going and expensive too. They have the limit to do basic calculations only. Vacuum tubes were the key element of memory and CPU in these computers.
Examples Of 1st Generation Computer
Here are some examples of First Generation computers:
- ENIAC: (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)
- EDVAC: (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer)
- UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer)
Key Features of First Generation computer:
- Vacuum tube machinery.
- Expensive and huge.
- Cause a lot of heat.
- Slow working.
- Not transferable.
- Drain loads of electricity.
- Assist machine language only.
- Use of punch card, magnetic tape, and paper tape.
The first computer ENIAC was built in the years of 1943 -1946 during World War II. ENIAC was mainly designed for the USA military for the calculations of artillery firing range. It weighed 30 tons and can cover an area of 1800 square feet. It cost almost $ 500,000 to make. This computer was invented and designed by John Presper Eckert and John Mauchly in Pennsylvania. 17,500 vacuum tubes were used in it. Vacuum tube technology was invented by electrical engineer Lee De Frost in 1906. ENIAC could do the calculations in a second (5000 additions, 357 multiplications, or 38 divisions).
In 1944, as the work was going on, on the modification of ENIAC Eckert, Mauchly and Van Neumann bring forward an upgraded computer named, EDVAC. EDVAC was the latest version as EDVAC used far lesser vacuum tubes than ENIAC however it did not start working till 1952.
It was the first stored-program and arithmetic computer in history. It stored data and the programs in memory and the program instruction were intended by the force of the machine. As opposed to ENIAC it was binary instead of decimal. It can perform calculations such as automatic subtraction, division, multiplication, and addition. It can also perform mechanized checking of 1000 34-bit words.
UNIVAC, introduced in 1951 by Remington Rand was the first mass-produced and well-paid electronic device. It contained 5000 vacuum tubes and weighed more or less 8 tons. Its memory was built with mercury-filled auditory delay lines holding 1000 12-digit. Reels of magnetic tape were the storage that can hold data of 1MB at the compactness of 128cpi. The concluding cost of the construction of UNIVAC was close to $ 1 million. It was a stored-program computer there is a huge difference in its structure as compared to ENIAC and EDVAC.
IBM-701, the first computer in IBM 700\ 7000 series was invented and reinforced by Jerrier Haddad and Nathanial Rochester on the 29th of April, 1952. IBM proved an initiator for introducing electronic computing into the world. It became the first mass-production computer in that era. IBM- 701 Electronic Data Processing Machine also known as Defensive Computer in its expansion. It was designed for systematic work and experimentation, this gave way to the establishment of the FORTRAN Programming Language. For storage inventors used magnetic tapes. It was the first computer that used polymer-based magnetic tapes in place of metal tapes.
IBM-650 known as Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine was the first computer built by IBM in the mid-1950s and introduced in 1954. It started becoming operational like a shot in the era of Electronic Data Processing and acquired a new height of reliability in the developing sphere of electronic computing. This device read data from magnetic tapes and punch cards. The 650 enhanced the punch card data processing that was commonplace in all significant businesses back then by adding high-speed computational capability. A fixed head magnetic disc with 2000, 10 digits words and a 12,500 RPM rotation served as the 650’s internal memory.
Question: First generation of computers was based on which technology?
Answer: The first generation of computers was based on vacuum tube technology.
Question: What was the era of the first-generation computer?
Answer: The era of the first-generation computer was 1946 TO 1959.