Which vitamins work as coenzyme?

QUESTION: Which vitamins work as coenzyme?

ANS: Vitamins that function as coenzymes include:

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine):

  • Thiamine acts as a coenzyme in the form of thiamine pyrophosphate.
  • It facilitates the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and plays a vital role in the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle).

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin):

  • Riboflavin serves as a precursor for two coenzymes FMN and FAD.
  • FMN and FAD participate in various redox reactions within cells.

Vitamin B3 (Niacin):

  • Niacin is a precursor for two coenzymes NAD and NADP.
  • NAD and NADP are involved in processes such as glycolysis and the citric acid cycle.

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid):

  • Pantothenic acid is a component of coenzyme A (CoA).
  • CoA is essential for the synthesis of certain molecules, such as cholesterol and acetylcholine.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine):

  • Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) is the active form of vitamin B6 and serves as a coenzyme.
  • It participates in processes such as the synthesis of neurotransmitters and metabolism of glycogen and other sugars.

Vitamin B7 (Biotin):

  • Biotin acts as a coenzyme for several carboxylase enzymes.
  • These enzymes are involved in important metabolic pathways, such as the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and amino acids.

 

Vitamin                       Role as Coenzyme
Vitamin B1 ·        Thiamine acts as a coenzyme in various enzymatic reactions involved in energy metabolism, particularly carbohydrate metabolism.

·        It helps convert pyruvate to acetyl CoA and plays a role in the citric acid cycle.

Vitamin B2 ·        Riboflavin serves as a precursor for coenzymes flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD).

·        FMN and FAD participate in redox reactions, particularly in energy metabolism, including the oxidation of fatty acids, glucose, and amino acids.

Vitamin B3 ·        Niacin is a precursor for coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP).

·        NAD and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism and redox reactions, including glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation.

Vitamin B5 ·        Pantothenic acid is a component of coenzyme A (CoA), which is involved in numerous metabolic reactions.

·        CoA plays a critical role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, the citric acid cycle, and the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids.

·        It also contributes to the synthesis of cholesterol and acetylcholine.

Vitamin B6 ·        Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6, acts as a coenzyme in over 100 enzymatic reactions.

·        PLP is primarily involved in amino acid metabolism, including neurotransmitter synthesis, tryptophan to niacin conversion, and glycogen and sugar metabolism.

Vitamin B7 ·        Biotin serves as a coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and amino acids.

·        It assists in the activation of these enzymes, allowing them to catalyze carboxylation reactions necessary for various cellular processes.

 

  1. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine):
    • Thiamine acts as a coenzyme in the form of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP).
    • TPP is involved in several enzymatic reactions related to energy metabolism, particularly carbohydrate metabolism.
    • It facilitates the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and plays a vital role in the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle).
  2. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin):
    • Riboflavin serves as a precursor for two coenzymes: flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD).
    • FMN and FAD participate in various redox reactions within cells.
    • They are involved in energy metabolism, including the oxidation of fatty acids, glucose, and amino acids.
  3. Vitamin B3 (Niacin):
    • Niacin is a precursor for two coenzymes: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP).
    • NAD and NADP play crucial roles in energy metabolism and redox reactions.
    • They are involved in processes such as glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation.
  4. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid):
    • Pantothenic acid is a component of coenzyme A (CoA).
    • CoA is essential for various metabolic reactions, including the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, the citric acid cycle, and the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids.
    • It also plays a role in the synthesis of certain molecules, such as cholesterol and acetylcholine.
  5. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine):
    • Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) is the active form of vitamin B6 and serves as a coenzyme.
    • PLP is involved in over 100 enzymatic reactions, primarily related to amino acid metabolism.
    • It participates in processes such as the synthesis of neurotransmitters, the conversion of tryptophan to niacin, and the metabolism of glycogen and other sugars.
  6. Biotin:
    • Biotin acts as a coenzyme for several carboxylase enzymes.
    • These enzymes are involved in important metabolic pathways, such as the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and amino acids.
    • Biotin helps activate these enzymes, allowing them to catalyze carboxylation reactions necessary for various cellular processes.

Important Questions about Enzymes

  1. Enzymes MCQs
  2. Inhibition in enzymes
  3. Which enzyme digests starch?
  4. Which enzyme digests protein?
  5. which enzyme is present in saliva?
  6. Which enzyme is not present in succus entericus?
  7. Which enzyme breaks down protein in the stomach?
  8. Which enzyme converts fibrinogen to fibrin?
  9. Which enzyme converts glucose into alcohol?
  10. Which enzyme digests fat?
  11. Which enzyme digests milk protein?
  12. Which enzyme is used in PCR?
  13. Which enzyme unzips the DNA double helix?
  14. Which liver enzyme increases with alcohol?
  15. Which enzyme cuts DNA?
  16. Which enzyme catalyzes the first step of glycolysis?
  17. Which enzyme binds DNA fragments together?
  18. Which enzyme transcribes DNA into RNA?
  19. which enzyme adds new nucleotides?
  20. Which enzyme digests cellulose?
  21. Which enzyme separates the two strands of DNA?
  22. Which enzyme converts carbohydrates into glucose?
  23. Which enzyme removes RNA primer?
  24. Which enzymes help in digestion?
  25. Which enzyme works best in acidic conditions?
  26. Which enzyme synthesizes tRNA?
  27. Which enzyme secreted by pancreas?
  28. Which enzyme converts maltose into glucose?
  29. Which vitamins work as coenzyme?