Turing Machine Basics In Theory Of Automata

By: Prof. Fazal Rehman Shamil | Whatsapp:+923028700085

Turing Machine Basics:

The Turing machine is an invention of a mathematician Alan Turing. 

Turing machine is a very powerful machine. Any computer problem can be solved through Turing Machine.

Just like FA, Turing machine also has some states and some transition. Starting and ending states are also the part of Turing Machine.

Every transition on the states have 3 parts;

  1. Read
  2. Write
  3. Move


By read operation, machine can read any alphabet from the input tape; e.g, a,b,c,….x,y,z, 0,1 etc.


By Write operation, machine can write any alphabet; e.g, a,b,c,….x,y,z, 0,1 etc.


The move represents direction. Move tells where to move on input tape. e.g, if we say that move right, then it means that we need to move from one cell to the right cell on the input tape.

There are two types of the move;

Move left

Move right


how to turing machine

Figure: Turing Machine Basics

Explanation of diagram:

There is in one little part of a Turing machine in the last figure. Let’s explain it;

Start state: 

To start the machine


Read a from input tape, Write a and then move one cell right on input tape.


Read b from input tape, Write b, and then move one cell right on input tape.


Machine successfully accept the string and Halts(Finish/complete).