History of Database System (DBMS)

History of Database System (DBMS)

The first concept of database introduces in the 1960’s. Lots of work has been done in this field. Following is the brief history of the database System.

 1950’s and early 1960’s

In 1950s magnetic tape was introduced for storage of data

The data storage process consists of reading data from many tapes and writing of data to a new tape. For input, process punched cards used, and for output, the printer was used. For example, salary raises were processed. In the tapes, storage data read in sequential order. The size of data much larger than the main memory. Access to the database was through low-level pointer operations. Storage detail depended on the type of data to be stored. Thus adding an extra field to your database requires rewriting the underlying access. A user would need to know the physical structure of the database in order to query for information. One major benefit was the SABRE system IBM and American Airline.


In this year two main relational database system was created, which was developed at UBC, and system R. E.F Codd proposed the relational model for the database in a landmark paper on how to think about database. This gave a new concept about the database. He disconnects the schema of a logical organization of a database from physical storage methods. It was also helpful in the development of SQL/DS. Two major relational database system prototypes were created between the years 1974 and 1977, and they were the Ingres, which was developed at UBC, and System R, created at IBM San Jose. Ingres used a query language known as QUEL, and it led to the creation of systems such as Ingres Corp., MS SQL Server, Sybase, Wang’s PACE, and Britton-Lee. On the other hand, System R used the SEQUEL query language, and it contributed to the development of SQL/DS, Oracle, Non-Stop SQL DB2etc


P-Chen introduces a new database model known as  ER Entity-Relationship. This design is basically made to focus on data applications.It gave another important insight into the conceptual data model. Such a higher level molding allows the designers to focus on the data instead of a logical structure.

Early 1980’s

SQL(Structured Query Language) became standard.IBM launched DB2.the development of the IBM PC gave rise to many DB companies and products such as RIM , OS/2, PARADOX, RBASE, Database Management System also introduce in this period. The relational database system became a success as rapid increase in computer sales. This increased the popularity of the network and hierarchical database models.

Early 1990’s

In early 1990s much work was done on client tools for application as development such as PowerBuilder.VB (Microsoft), Oracle Developer. The client-server model for computing became the norm for future business decisions. The work on the object database system also started in this year. The more complex database system was introduced at high prices.in this year new client tools for application development were introduced. A number of tools for personal productivity such as ODBC and Excel/Access were also developed.

Mid 1990’s

The usable internet /WWW was introduced in the middle of this year.it allows remote access to the computer systems. The concept of Web/DB started to grow. The advancement in the database system was started. Average desktops users began to use the client-server database.

Late 1990’s

In the late 1990s, the online business was increased resulting in a rise in demand for internet database connectors like Active server page, Jave Servlets, FrontPage, Dream Weaver. Enterprise Java Beans, Oracle Developer 2000 etc.in this year internet companies worked for Web/Internet connectors. The open-source solutions came online with online analytic processing (OLAP) come of age with many merchants using point-of-sale (POS) technology on a daily basis.

Early 21st Century

The growth of DB applications continued in the early 21st century. The more interactive application appeared with the use of PDAs.The main companies that predominated the large DB market are IBM.Microsoft and oracle.


Today’s database is used anywhere in our day to day life. In the present day, there are many new players in the non-relational database space offering particular solutions. Many powerful technologies is introduces in the database. The database is very helpful in every field to keep records save. The quick base is an online database on a relational database that gives users of any skill level the ability to create custom applications using the power of the relational database.

Future Trends

The huge system are appearing and the handling and analyzing data has become very complex. Large database as genome project, geological, national security and space exploration data have been developed. Data mining, data warehousing, data marts are commonly used techniques today. This trend will continue in the future.XML with java has become a popular technique. Mobiles database is now coming to the market in various ways. Distributed transaction processing is also very popular for business planning in many areas.

Prof. Fazal Rehman Shamil
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