Static and Dynamic Routing Protocols, Advantages, Disadvantages, and Difference

Static and Dynamic Routing Protocols, Advantages, Disadvantages, and Difference

Routing is process to send data packets over networks. Route packets from source to destination through best path.s

Routing Protocol

Routing protocols are a set of rules that define how data and information can collect and how this information or data sent to different devices and over a different network.

Routing Algorithm

The routing algorithm is a set of step by step operations that used for controlling network traffic more efficiently. When data packets want to send it takes many ways for its destination, but here Routing algorithm specifies the best path. Different Algorithm used a different method to define the best way.

Routing database

Routing databases are used to store all information discovered by a Routing algorithm. Sometimes directly linked with Routing Table.

There are two ways to build a routing table.

  1. Static Routing
  2. Dynamic Routing

Static Routing

A static routing table is set up, update and maintained manually by the network administrator. A static route must be constructed to every network on every router for full connectivity. Static Router provides a roughly controlled over routing and manageable on a smaller network. It also provides network segmentation tasks such as inter-virtual local area network (VLAN) routing and simple routing. This facilitates network segmentation to divide various broadcast domains and provide connectivity between these subnets.

However, static has many limitations, one link failure can destroy the whole network. If the link is unavailable, then router in purely static cannot select the best path. This is because no information is logically shared between routers. Simply stated, static routing is best for networks that don’t need to change. It cannot support complex Routing algorithm.

Dynamic Routing

If you want to build a large network then dynamic routing is best and allow the network to select the best path for getting and sending packets from source to destination. Its Routing table not managed manually.  A dynamic routing table is created, maintained, and updated by a routing protocol running on the router. Dynamic Routing protocols help the network to find the best way of routing.

In many networks When you have more than one paths to the same destination. For example, we can define this path like from Point A to B, Point A to D, A to C, etc .here we need to define the best path from source to destination One of these paths may be more efficient than the other.

Routers determine the best way on the basis of several criteria along with network quality, network traffic, link up and down, etc. One of the most important benefits of dynamic routing is Redundancy. if one path or one link on the network unavailable or because of hardware failure dynamic routing will help the router on Layer 3 how to route around that path without manual arbitration. Dynamic Routing supports complex algorithm.

For example, your network consists of 200 routers and you want to add 2 new subnets to the network because for a new project you have open a new office You would need to add 400 static routing entries. What is wrong with static routing here?

  • the contract  between administration domains will take ages,
  • the modification in statics is looked to be fantasy,
  • the chance of mistake will rise incredible,
  • the process change will take much time
  • the static routing may not failure tolerate thus the fail could destroy the whole network.

Dynamic routing provides solutions to all the above problems. dynamic routing provides an automatic process running between all routers. The process is called a routing protocol and is built to

  • Swap IP prefixes between routers,
  • find the shortest and best ) path from source to destination,
  • form anti-loop topology
  • atomized in  changes
  • speed up the process and administrative task
  • When error or failure accord it recalculate and find the shortest l path.

Difference between Static and Dynamic routing

Difference between Static and Dynamic routing
Figure: Difference between Static and Dynamic routing

Advantages of Static Routing

    1. Easily implemented in a small network like LAN
    2. It provides more security no advertisement send with data as like dynamic routing.
    3. It is very predictable, as the route to the destination is always the same.
    4. No complex algorithm is required
    5. Required no mechanism for updating
    6. Require no extra resources like CPU and memory etc.

Disadvantages of Static Routing

    1. Only suitable for the small network cannot work for a large network
    2. Complexity automatically increased when the network grows
    3. Managing static configuration in the large network become very complex and very time taking.
    4. If one link fails it affects the whole network
    5. In the failure of one link in static, it cannot route traffic.
    6. Manual intervention is required for re-routing traffic in the network.
    7. It cannot support complex routing algorithm.

Advantages of dynamic routing

    1. Suitable in all topologies where many routers are required.
    2. Easily used in a large network
    3. Mostly independent to network size
    4. Failure of one link cannot affect the whole network
    5. In case of failure, a one link automatically re reroute without any manual intervention.
    6. It supports more complex routing algorithm.

Disadvantages of dynamic Routing

  1. More complex in implementation
  2. Less secure than static routing because of a multicast routing change
  3. An additional configuration setting is required such as a routing protocol, passive interfaces to increase security
  4. Required additional resources like memory CPU and link bandwidth.