ResarchThesis Project for MBA BBA -Personality Traits & Entrepreneurial Intentions
“Personality Traits & Entrepreneurial Intentions: Social Capital as moderator and Financial Risk-Taking as mediator” is the title of the thesis and this thesis is an MBA thesis of Sobia Hanif.
Pakistan is the 10th largest country in the world according to its labor force. Employment and unemployment facts of the country are the most important contribution for policy and planning functions. According to the latest statistics, the 2015 unemployment rate in Pakistan is 5.9% (Ministry of Finance, 2018). Unemployment is the biggest challenge faced by most of the developing countries including Pakistan. Due to this problem, more young people are unemployed and they have fewer job opportunities. In Pakistan, thousands of students are graduating from different institutes every year; but there are no job opportunities for these graduates. When there are no opportunities for fresh graduates ultimately students involve in other activities like crimes, violence and many other social immoralities (Farrukh, Ahmad, Shahid, & Ramzani, 2017).
The government of Pakistan has been directing its attention to remove these social vices from the country by providing job opportunities and including entrepreneurial skills training in the syllabus of the educational institutes so that youth has employment skills when they graduate from the universities. The education of entrepreneurship focuses on developing skills, capability, knowledge of entrepreneurship as well as intentions and attitudes of entrepreneurship that are consistent with the requirement of the economy (Obschonka, Silbereisen, & Schmitt-Rodermund, 2010). When the economic situation of the country is failing to provide job opportunities to the graduates, then education of entrepreneurship is the best option which supports growth and generates job opportunities (Westhead & Solesvik, 2016).
Gartner (1989) defined the term entrepreneurship as; “new entry” which means the establishment of new business according to the choice of an individual to work for his/her own account and risk. There are two reasons for which much attention is given to entrepreneurship
graduate (Nabil & Holden, 2008). The reason behind this is that graduates have excessive human capital, that’s why they’re focusing to create new ventures that are more growth oriented and have lesser chances to fail (Rauch & Rijswijk, 2013). The 2nd motive is that when the economic system is facing recession, the positive adjustment from graduates to self-employment can better aid in stopping graduate unemployment (Sciaretta et al., 2012). Entrepreneurial career choice possesses lots of advantages in growing economy but there is little attention given to entrepreneurial intentions in professional and career psychology (Gorgievski & Stephan, 2016).
Mostly people prefer salaried employment over self-employment (Biemann, Zacher, & Feldman, 2012). We gained more awareness about individuals by studying more about entrepreneurial career intentions as why individuals choose independent careers demanding high personal accountability (Arnold, 2011). Entrepreneurship play an important role to individual and within the development of national economic progress and it provides lot of job opportunities (Aparicio, Urbano, & Audretsch, 2016). Higher institutions of Pakistan are providing lot of training about the awareness and benefits of entrepreneurship, in spite of this awareness there are larger number of graduates who are seeking job without any willingness to start business ventures. During the past 30 years there have been significant changes in the theory of entrepreneurship. It plays an important role, now a days, it has assigned to entrepreneurship and human capital for the progress of specific regions of the world economic system (Galindo & Alvarez, 2004).
In current decades, entrepreneurship play a primary role in different fields such as, developing globalization system that comes from liberalization of markets and from the conversion of ex-communist countries to capitalism as well as rapid percent of technological progress (Audretsch, Belitski, & Desai, 2015). Recently much attention has been paid to entrepreneurship research program, analysis of existing entrepreneur’s characteristics and quality (Santos & Guzmán, 2001). There are different field of study covering the entrepreneurship research program such as firm creation process and analyzing the characteristics of potential entrepreneurs (Liñán, 2004).
Llewellyn and Wilson (2003) stated that the term personality traits have been enlightening the responsive action and industrious action of entrepreneurs. These individual differentiate themselves as a result of their ability to participate, have interaction, allow, foresee and advocate transformational alternate when there are scarce resources, diverse situations, and uncertainty (Thompson, 2002). However, the role of personality traits in describing entrepreneurship has remained under researched. The motive of the current study is to examine the impact of personality traits (extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, neuroticism and agreeableness) on the entrepreneurial intentions and the moderating role of social capital and mediating role of financial risk taking.
The term extraversion is defined as, the measure to which individuals are outgoing, vigorous, hopeful, deep, sociable and self-confident (Watson & Clark, 1997). McCrae at al. (2008) said that openness is expressed in a way wherein a person’s intellectual curiosity and attraction towards originality and innovation of latest experiences are observed. The term neuroticism determines that the degree to which individuals are emotionally stable (Yong, 2007). Conscientiousness refers to the people which are self-disciplined, achievement striving, and dependable (Llewellyn & Wilson, 2003). Agreeableness concerns the potential to substitute social consensus along with the preservation of mutual expertise (Yong, 2007).
Social capital is made up of the relationships, either formal or informal, generated by individuals in their interaction with other individuals trying to obtain an expected reward in the market. That is, social capital could be defined as capital captured in the form of social relationships (Lin 2003).The relationship of the person or group either powerful or weak with other participants or group is viewed as major aspect in the social capital (Granovetter, 1983).
There are two varieties of relationship between individuals or organization; one is strong ties and other is weak ties, strong intra community ties (between family members/ an organization) and weak inter-community ties are necessary to assure about the effectiveness of social capital (Woolcock & Narayan, 2000). Bonding and bridging social capital are derived from strong (intra community ties) and weak ties (inter community ties) respectively. Now a days social capital performs an essential position in the growth of economy at micro level (Barros and Alves, 2003) and macro stage (Putnam, 1993) by using assigning social relationship and cooperation of individuals and businesses. Earlier researchers have put their focus on how big personality traits have an effect on behavior of participants (Brandst Aotter, 2011), but there are few reports that explained how personality traits have an effect on entrepreneurial intentions of students.
Risk taking is the desire of a man or woman/organization to actively seize, pursue and follow opportunities in an uncertain atmosphere via accepting the risk involved. Jung (2015) defined this term as in an uncertain environment how individual make decision. The entrepreneurs having low risk taking tendency try to avoid risks or make selections thoughtfully and carefully, whereas those inclined closer to excessive risk-taking tend to make their selections faster in order to capture possibilities (Bin & Park, 2002). In the meantime Sexton and Bowman-Upton (1986) stated that risk-taking can be termed as entrepreneur’s will or propensity to confidently undertaking uncertainties.
Entrepreneurial intention is the major antecedent of entrepreneurship (Lee & Wong, 2004). It’s the predictable result of a deliberate conduct. Yoon (2004) defined entrepreneurial intention as first step toward the establishment of a trade. Krueger et al. (2000) defined entrepreneurial intention as effort of an individual to begin his/her business in order that without it, further processes are not able to be done. Shapero (1981) appealed that the roles of entrepreneurs having entrepreneurial intentions are significant for the economy, country or group to have their
power of improvement to control economic recessions and self-reforming traits. Therefore, it’s foremost for our society to make contributions to constant financial development with the aid of training a constructive notion in the minds of students having entrepreneurial intentions and let people who have potential, to challenge and be successful. In addition, entrepreneurial intentions are influenced by way of social capital due to the fact it supports in retrieving knowledge, decision making, guide collective action and likewise supports in decreasing transaction charges (Sharma, 2014).
1.2 Theoretical Background
In 1997, John Holland presented theory of career choice, which argues that “Careers are determined by an interaction between individual personality and the environment”. According to John Holland’s Theory careers are dependent on individual’s personality. Holland in 1997 supposed that humans who possess certain traits are more likely to work together and in the environment which is matched to their needs (Himid Alkhelil, 2016). Majority of researchers found that personality traits are concerning particular type of behaviors that an individual prefers (Hussain et al., 2011). Career choice theory explains the connection between personality traits and career intentions, that the personality of a person has the foremost concern with the option of career choice, next to cognitive capacity (Hussain et al., 2011). Past studies have shown that personality traits determined the man or woman’s career intentions (Hossain et al., 2012).
Big five personality traits have been considered extensively to survey the effect of various attributes of a person on his/her entrepreneurial intentions. Holland’s career choice theory explains that a person’s career intentions are the outflow of his or her personality. Earlier researchers have discovered an optimistic relationship amongst personality traits and entrepreneurial intentions (Karabulut, 2016).
Besser and Shackelford (2007) stated that a person high on extroversion tends to be more sociable and polite. This concept can be confirmed by using studies that show that extroverted individuals do prefer occupations that have an open door for social contact (Bryant et al., 2005).
Individuals who score high on openness are usually people who are risk takers and are not afraid of taking new challenges (Bryant et al., 2005). Openness includes characteristics like being creative and innovative and having a large variety of interests. They interact with a lot of people and have more useful capital (Wu et al., 2008).
Chuenyane (1983) defined that career hesitation is identified with neuroticism as a result of negative considerations and feelings. Singaravelu et al. (2005) stated that enthusiasm (emotional stability) is a characteristic that could be emphatically identified with execution in all occupations. Emotionally stable people will probably choose business, mathematics, finance and law fields as contrasted with social sciences and humanities since they like organized principles and rules (Peng, 1996).
High scoring conscientious people are more dedicated, goal-oriented, energetic, planning things ahead of time, and these people utilize their social capital more proficiently and viably in their entrepreneurial intentions (Houghton et al., 2000). Their characteristics are reliability, consistency, determination and diligent work (Peng, 1996) and people with these attributes are probably going to perform better intellectually since they are driven more than the others (Singaravelu et al., 2005).
People with agreeable traits are more lovely and benevolent and occupied with social practices having more social capital which is useful in entrepreneurial intentions (Peng, 1996).
The risk perspective of entrepreneurial intentions states that, the extent to which participants change their willingness to take on some of the new unfamiliar situations (Morris, 1998). A few business behaviors have been studied by Koh (1996), who affirmed that entrepreneurs are prudent and they manage risk sensibly. Entrepreneurs typically have involvement in risky
behaviors and seem more motivated to take risks (Norton & Moore, 2002). Members having different personalities have distinctive financial risk taking preferences that may affect in variations of their risk taking within the investment. For example, risk-averse traders pick and choose to put money into bonds that prove to be safe (treasury bonds) rather of selecting other risky things regardless of the better return furnished by using those risky things. Research in the field of risk taking and personality has implied that risk behaviors can be understood by way of dispositional motivations (Soane & Chmiel, 2005). Participants who are inclined to take risks or members who avoid risks to achieve their goals are in line with their natures.
Extroverted people exhibit higher level of financial risk taking (Harlow & Brown, 1990). Costa et al. (1984) stated that individuals having extroversion characteristics are positively associated with risk taking. Openness to experience is considered as a cognitive concept of risk seeking that entails tolerance to uncertainty, change, and innovation (McCrae et al., 1997). Individual scoring excessive on neuroticism are fearful of the scenario in which they have got risk of failing and further they lack the self-assurance had to take initiative in risk taking sports for starting a new venture (Raja, Johns, Ntalianis, & Johns, 2004). Individual traits such as dutifulness, determined, disciplined and thorough are more likely to focus on their lives under rules and regulations for this reason they do not prefer more financial risk (Hogan & Ones, 1997). Agreeableness can forecast risk propensity to the point, for those traits are negatively related with compulsion, assertiveness, and unfavorable qualities (Lauriola & Levin, 2001). Alternatively, risk takers mainly need flexibility (Klein & Kunda, 1994), which specifies low levels of agreeableness. Individuals having different personalities bear a tendency to have different financial risk taking preferences that can result in differences in their risk taking in the direction of investing such as entrepreneurs often engage in risky behaviors and seem more willing to take risks (March & Shapira, 1987).
1.3 Gap Analysis
Chia, Ching and Liang (2017) explored the effect of personality traits, creativity and social capital on entrepreneurial intentions of Hong Kong students. They found that social capital was no longer linked with entrepreneurial intentions of students. The outcome might come out to be unique in future studies if social capital would be used as a mediator or a moderator in the relationship between personality dimensions and entrepreneurial intentions.
Hsu and Wang (2018) studied the entrepreneurial intentions and its significant effects on students of Taiwan and Hong Kong. In line with them entrepreneurial intentions research increased, revealing that they have an effect of influential motives (personality traits, creativity and social capital) on entrepreneurial intention could differ depending on the region, political and financial environment, and prevailing social perspective.
Previous studies tried to relate social capital with financial risk taking through arguments which are centered on behavioral characteristics like extroversion and neuroticism. Thus, further research is required that can use big five personality model which will give fruitful results with regards to the exact relationship between personality and financial risk taking (Edalat, 2016).
On the bases of these gaps we propose a model with a purpose to evaluate the effect of big five personality traits on entrepreneurial intentions of students and moderating role of social capital and mediating role of financial risk taking in the context of Pakistan.
1.4 Problem Statement
Personality plays a primary role in the entrepreneurial intentions of the students. The connection between personality traits and entrepreneurial intentions of students has taken the attention of researchers. When the economic situation of the country is failing to offer job opportunities to the graduate then education of entrepreneurship is the best alternative which support development and generate job opportunities. Entrepreneurial career choice has a lot of advantages in growing economy but there is little attention given to entrepreneurial intentions in professional and career psychology (Gorgievski & Stephan, 2016).
Moreover, there may be fewer studies in the context of Pakistan related to big 5 personality traits and its influence on entrepreneurial intentions. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate the impact of personality characteristics (extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, neuroticism and conscientiousness) on entrepreneurial intentions of students along with the moderating role of social capital and the mediating role of financial risk taking.
1.5 Research Objectives of the Study
- To study the relationship between personality traits and entrepreneurial intentions.
- To study the moderating role of social capital in the relationship between personality traits and entrepreneurial intentions.
- To study the mediating role of financial risk taking in the relationship between personality traits and entrepreneurial intentions.
1.6 Research Questions of the Study
- Do personality traits affect entrepreneurial intentions?
- Does social capital moderate the relationship between personality traits and entrepreneurial intentions?
- Does financial risk taking mediate the relationship between personality traits and entrepreneurial intentions?
1.7 Significance of the Study
1.7.1 Theoretical significance
Our research contributes to the literature through examining the moderating role of social capital and the mediating role of financial risk taking within the relationship between personality characteristics and entrepreneurial intentions. The present study compares the effect of extraversion, openness to experience, neuroticism, conscientiousness and agreeableness on the entrepreneurial intentions of students. This study makes clear the role of personality on the career intentions of students in the presence of financial risk taking. The study may also help academicians to advance more potent and purposeful entrepreneurial coaching and education with the intention to develop the personality of the students. This study helps to understand the moderating role of social capital and mediating role of financial risk taking within the relationship between personality traits and entrepreneurial intentions. Our study additionally has been a theoretical contribution to the literature by way of explaining the Holland’s theory of profession/career choice (1997) in our model.
1.7.2 Contextual significance
There are numerous researchers who have studied about the distinct traits of personality but fewer studies explore the effect of personality characteristics on entrepreneurial intention of students in the context of Pakistan. For this reason the important contribution of current study is to compare the impact of big five personality traits on entrepreneurial intentions of students together with the moderating role of social capital and mediating role of financial risk taking within the context of Pakistan.
1.7.3 Practical Significance
The present study attracts the attentiveness of the academicians in order to recognize the factors that need to be examined at the time of guidance to students about entrepreneurship skill. The present study has discovered that if these factors are not present, then the intentions of the students to start new ventures could get weaken. Business events are considered as one of the crucial approach to reduce the unemployment rate; as a consequence the present study proposes that management of educational institutes should make psychological plans and practices in order to encourage the students that may aid them to transform their targets into action. The current study also helps academicians to improve effective business training and education to improve the personality of the graduates.
2.1 Personality Traits and Entrepreneurial Intentions
Personality traits were studied extensively in order to evaluate the influence of different characteristics of individuals on entrepreneurial intentions. Previous researchers have additionally established a positive relationship between personality characteristics and entrepreneurial intentions (Karabulut, 2016). Personality traits are predictable propensities of individual behaviors that explain variations within the actions of individuals in certain circumstances (Llewellyn & Wilson, 2003).
Entrepreneurial intentions can also be defined as self-acknowledged persuasion of any individual who intends to start a new business enterprise and deliberately plans to take action in future (Thompson, 2009).
Highly developed theory of big five personality traits consists of extroversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and agreeableness (Wang, Chang, Yao, & Liang, 2016).
2.1.1 Extraversion and Entrepreneurial Intentions
Moon et al. (2008) defined the term extraversion as, the degree to which people are outgoing, energetic, hopeful, warm, sociable and self-confident. Extroversion supports towards the personality in powering the intuition and also making use of the charismatic visualization of the entrepreneur (Crant, 1996). Entrepreneurs are proposed to possess extroversion as they must be inclined and equipped to keep in touch well with stakeholders. Zhao and Seibert (2006) indicated that entrepreneurs who are more extroverts have a tendency to win investor’s help. Extraversion trait is important for potential entrepreneurs in developing external network’s support (Chandler & Jansen, 1992).
Costa, McCrae and Holland (1984) observed that extroverted people are more attracted towards entrepreneurship. Free enterprise as occupation may look to be more stimulating and motivating than that of other industry professions to the extroverts (Zhao et al., 2010).
H1: Extraversion positively affects entrepreneurial intentions.
2.1.2 Openness to Experience and Entrepreneurial Intentions
Openness is expressed in a way wherein a person’s intellectual curiosity and attraction towards originality of latest experiences are observed (McCrae & Costa, Abu Elanain, 2008). People who are more openness to experience trait aren’t anxious about new challenges and they have high level of creativity (Yong, 2007). Zhao and Seibert (2006) also told that entrepreneurs explore revolutionary ideas and utilize creativity to sort out troubles associated with them. Entrepreneurs were determined to be more open as compared to managerial employees (Nordvik & Brovold, 1998). These individuals have the quality of creativity which is required to entrepreneurship. Past research showed that openness to experience is a primary predictor of free enterprise (Antoncic, Bratkovic Kregar, Singh, & Denoble, 2015). Openness to experience revealed a major function in the awareness of opportunity (Cameron, 2006).
H2: Openness to experience positively affects entrepreneurial intentions.
2.1.3 Neuroticism and Entrepreneurial Intentions
The term neuroticism determines the degree to which individuals are emotionally stable (Yong, 2007). Individuals who score high on neuroticism regularly show mood swings, recklessness, self-cognizance, arrogance and depression (Costa & McCrae, 1992). The literature indicates that entrepreneurs have a strong belief in their potential to govern consequences in their environments (Simon, Houghton, & Aquino, 2000), a trait associated with low levels of neuroticism. Entrepreneurs who are consistently challenged by any form of problematic circumstances regarding management of resources which are scarce in tandem with pressures of enlightening legitimacy within the face of pressures from that of stakeholders are willing to show off pointless measure of optimism and emotional intelligence (Crane & Crane, 2007). In addition, individuals high on neuroticism are terrified by the challenge that has the chance of failing. Neurotic individuals have low level of confidence that is needed to invest in risk taking activities or to start a new business (Raja, Johns, Ntalianis, & Johns, 2004).
H3: Neuroticism negatively affects entrepreneurial intentions.
2.1.4 Conscientiousness and Entrepreneurial Intentions
Conscientiousness refers to the people who are self-disciplined, achievement striving, and dependable (Llewellyn & Wilson, 2003). Past researchers indicated that conscientious individuals are highly motivated to succeed (Stewart & Roth, 2004). Individuals, who are high in conscientious trait, plan and establish their work, set goals, and continue to give excellent performance; are more likely to become entrepreneur as compared to those who are low in conscientious trait (Hogan & Ones, 1997). The conscientious trait pertains to a person’s diligence, conformance with guidelines/processes and the persistent desire in order to keep high criteria of performance (Yong, 2007). Conscientious people are industrious, strive for success and are determined with the aid of a strong knowledge of responsibility that encourages their dependability at work (Ciavarella et al., 2004). Conscientious trait has been found to relate with competitive gains of the organization (Ong & Ismail, 2008).
H4: Conscientiousness positively affects entrepreneurial intentions.
2.1.5 Agreeableness and Entrepreneurial Intentions
Agreeableness concerns the potential to adopt social consensus while preserving mutual expertise and considerations (Yong, 2007). Agreeableness in interpersonal relationships includes the ability to be right listeners, sufferer, understandable and inspiring contract in social interactions (Caliendo & Kritikos, 2008). Moreover, entrepreneurs tend to illustrate higher degree of competitiveness than do other styles of business owners, reflecting an absence of agreeableness (Brandstatter, 2011). Agreeable people are trusting, cooperative and polite
(Goldberg, John, Kaiser, Lanning, & Peabody, 1990). They are typically lenient, following morality and thoughtful (Sung & Choi, 2009). In comparison to this, individuals who are rating less on courteous attribute are doubtful, self-oriented and controlling. According to Zhao et al. (2010), individuals having agreeable trait are more concerned with occupations which have public connections like social work and teaching than to become an entrepreneur.
H5: Agreeableness negatively affects entrepreneurial intentions.
2.2 Personality Traits and Financial Risk Taking
Risk taking propensity is defined as individual’s willingness to take risk (Sitkin & Weingart, 1995). People with different personalities incline to have different investment preferences which are outcome of differences in their risk taking propensities towards investing. People who are risk averse invest their money in safer bond while people who are risk taker prefer to invest in risky investment.
According to Sulaiman (2012), some studies have linked risk taking with age while Faff et al. (2009) said that accountability and dependency having negative impact on risk taking. Hallahan et al. (2004) observe a positive relationship between wealth and risk taking whereas Sulaiman (2012) provides the effect of education on risk taking.
Krishnan and Beena (2009) said that personality traits of individuals have an impact on risk tolerance, fund management and spending. So, there’s a relationship between personality traits and tendency to participate in finance projects. People having less knowledge of investment field may have lower risk tolerance. Personality traits could affect an individual risk tolerance (Bye & Lamvik, 2007).
2.2.1 Extraversion and Financial Risk Taking
Lauriola and Levin (2001) defined the extraversion as it relates to the needs for motivation. It is expressed as a need for recognition and pleasure, together with social potential and dominance. Extraversion characterized with the aid of the need for diverse, innovative, and tricky situations and abilities and the interest to take physical and societal risks for the sake of such involvements (Zuckerman, 1979).
Extroverted people exhibit higher level of financial risk taking (Harlow & Brown, 1990). Costa et al. (1984) stated that individuals having extroversion characteristics are positively associated with risk taking. Harlow and Brown (1990) said that extrovert persons are more risk averse while introverts are less risk averse.
H6: Extroversion positively affects financial risk taking.
2.2.2 Openness to Experience and Financial Risk-taking
Openness to experience is considered as a cognitive concept of risk-seeking that entails tolerance to uncertainty, change, and innovation (McCrae et al., 1997). Individuals who scoreless on this trait are traditional, conservative, and predictable and favor familiar routines to new experiences, due to which they are less likely to take the risk (Kowert & Hermann, 1997). We propose that individuals having high level of this trait would be more risk takers.
H7: Openness to experience positively affects financial risk-taking.
2.2.3 Neuroticism and Financial Risk Taking
Neurotic individuals seem to be much nervous. Lauriola and Levin (2001) said that there is negative relationship between neurotic individuals and risk seeking as a result of its relationship with the anxiousness attribute. Risk seekers might also need some flexibility (Klein & Kunda, 1994), it can be defined as that they’re going to have less scores in expressive sympathy, which is one part of emotions stability. Anxious people are prone to exhibit negative feelings, similar to anxiousness, despair, and irritation, instead of being expressively strong. Therefore, it is said that more neurotic people having less risk taking preferences.
The linkage of a low rating with regular risk preferences would suggest that emotional stability influences the stability of risk preferences (Costa & McCrae, 1992).
H8: Neuroticism negatively affects financial risk-taking.
2.2.4 Conscientiousness and Financial Risk-Taking
Conscientiousness specifies a desire for achievements under the provisions of rules and regulations, avoiding uncertainty tolerance (Hogan & Ones, 1997). Individual traits such as dutifulness, determined, disciplined and thorough are more likely to focus on their lives under rules and regulations for this reason they do not prefer more financial risk (Hogan & Ones, 1997). As a result, we proposed that individuals with higher levels of conscientiousness exhibit low levels of risk-taking.
High degree in conscientiousness could be related to consistent evaluations of risk-taking and an aversion to taking a risk of uncertain outcomes. High level in conscientiousness is frequently related to risk aversion (Nicholson, et. al., 2005), this study proposes a negative relationship between conscientiousness and risk-taking.
H9: Conscientiousness negatively affects financial risk-taking.
Please take a few minutes to complete this survey. We are conducting research on Personality Traits, Social Capital, Financial Risk-Taking and Entrepreneurial Intentions. We have selected your institute, your specific answers will be completely confidential, but your views, in combination with those of others, are extremely important. So your response will be very valuable to us.
- Institutions Name
- Age ________
- Educational qualification ___________
- Area of specialization __________________
Please describe your personal views of the following statements as objectively as you can, by encircling number against each statement from the rating scale given below:
|1= Strongly||2= Disagree||3= Neutral||4= Agree||5= Strongly Agree|
|E1||I really enjoy talking to people.||1||2||3||4||5|
|E2||I often feel as if I am bursting with energy.||1||2||3||4||5|
|E3||I am a cheerful and high-spirited person.||1||2||3||4||5|
|E4||I am a very active person.||1||2||3||4||5|
|E5||I make friends easily.||1||2||3||4||5|
|O6||I am full of ideas.||1||2||3||4||5|
|O7||I have a lot of intellectual curiosity.||1||2||3||4||5|
|O8||I carry conversations to a higher level.||1||2||3||4||5|
|O9||I often enjoy playing with theories of abstract ideas.||1||2||3||4||5|
|Under immense stress and burden, I feel like I am going to||1||2||3||4||5|
|N11||Frequently I feel like I am totally unimportant.||1||2||3||4||5|
|Too often, when things go wrong, I get discouraged and feel||1||2||3||4||5|
|N12||like giving up.|
|N13||I often feel tense and anxious.||1||2||3||4||5|
|I am pretty good about paving myself so as to get things done||1||2||3||4||5|
|C15||I keep my belonging neat and clean.||1||2||3||4||5|
|C16||I waste lot of time before setting down to work.(R)||1||2||3||4||5|
|C17||I am always dependable and organized.||1||2||3||4||5|
|A18||I generally try to be thoughtful and considerate.||1||2||3||4||5|
|A19||I never get into arguments with my family and co-workers.||1||2||3||4||5|
|A20||Some people think of me as cold and calculating.(R)||1||2||3||4||5|
|A21||Most people think that I am not selfish and egotistic.||1||2||3||4||5|
|BO22||There are several people I trust to help solve my problems.||1||2||3||4||5|
|There is someone I can turn to for advice about making very||1||2||3||4||5|
|If I needed an emergency loan of Rs.10000, I have no one I||1||2||3||4||5|
|BO24||can turn to.(R)|
|The people I interact with would put their reputation on the||1||2||3||4||5|
|BO25||line for me.|
|BO26||The people I interact with would help me fight an injustice.||1||2||3||4||5|
|Interacting with people makes me interested in things that||1||2||3||4||5|
|BR27||happen outside of my town.|
|Interacting with people online/offline makes me want to try||1||2||3||4||5|
|Talking with people does not make me curious about other||1||2||3||4||5|
|BR29||places in the world.|
|Interacting with people makes me feel like part of a larger||1||2||3||4||5|
|Interacting with people makes me feel connected to the bigger||1||2||3||4||5|
|FR32||I like to take chances, although I may fail.||1||2||3||4||5|
|Although a new thing has a high promise of reward, I do not||1||2||3||4||5|
|want to be the first one who tries it. I would rather wait until it|
|FR33||has been tested and proven before I try it.(R)|
|When I have to make a decision for which the consequence is||1||2||3||4||5|
|not clear, I like to go with the safer option although it may|
|FR34||yield limited rewards.(R)|
|I like to try new things, knowing well that some of them will||1||2||3||4||5|
|FR36||To earn greater rewards, I am willing to take higher risks.||1||2||3||4||5|
|EI37||I am ready to do anything to be an entrepreneur.||1||2||3||4||5|
|EI38||My professional goal is to become an entrepreneur.||1||2||3||4||5|
|EI39||I will make every effort to start and run my own firm.||1||2||3||4||5|
|EI40||I am determined to create a firm in the future.||1||2||3||4||5|
|EI41||I have very seriously thought of starting a firm.||1||2||3||4||5|
|EI42||I have the firm intention to start a firm someday.||1||2||3||4||5|