UPA Stands for United Progressive Alliance in India.
Introduction of UPA Alliance:
United Progressive Alliance is known by its initials. In 2004, an alliance of all left-leaning parties in India was established. Ms. Sonia Gandhi founded it. Following the 2004 general election, Indian National Congress received backing from several political parties in India, along with the Samajwadi Party, Bahujan Samajwadi Party, and Left Front party to establish the alliance they later dubbed UPA.
Jyoti Basu and Harkishan Singh Surjeet handled the policy and supervision in the beginning. Sonia Gandhi, the alliance’s chairperson, and the Congress were both acknowledged as having support for the initiatives.
History of United Progressive Alliance in India
(2004 – 2022) Present:
Just after the 2004 general elections, the UPA was quickly established because no other party gained a majority in the elections. The National Democratic Alliance was in power then and gained 181 seats out of a total of 544 compared to 218 for the UPA.
2004 – 2008:
The UPA’s first term in office (2004–2008) saw the economy continue to grow, but it was also characterized by rising prices because of increasing fuel prices. When the government sought a contract on nuclear cooperation with the United States, even its allies in parliament made fun of it. Progress on the agreement sparked a vote of confidence in the UPA government, which it narrowly avoided because detractors claimed it really would allow the United States disproportionate influence over the Indian government.
2009 – 2014:
The UPA had a sharp decrease in popularity during its second term (2009–2014). The Indian economy, which originally managed to withstand the 2008–2009 global financial crisis before starting to deteriorate, was a significant contributing element. It was hampered by several issues, including slowing development and increasing inflation rates, rising prices for food and energy, and high lending prices that discouraged investment. The UPA, however, lost favor with the nation’s public due to a series of corruption allegations that included several UPA government leaders, notably Prime Minister Singh in 2013, and were more serious.
2015 – 2019:
The UPA only won 3 state elections between 2014 and 2017. The alliance’s poor leadership and comparative vulnerability versus the NDA were held responsible for this. The party also knocked out governments in states like Bihar where they had previously won state elections. The Alliance lost its control and government in 2017 but in the 2018 state elections, UPA made a stunning return, winning significant seats in Rajasthan, Karnataka, and other states.
UPA failed to win the opposition position in the Indian general election of 2019, winning only 91 seats. The BJP won by-elections in another state that the alliance lost, forcing the UPA into a minority ruling party.
A sub-alliance entitled Maha Vikas Aghadi was formed to establish the administration in Maharashtra, with Shiv Sena leader Uddhav Thackeray serving as the minister, as the alliance made significant gains in Haryana and won in Jharkhand at the end of 2019. For 25 years, Shiv Sena has participated in NDA but in the year 2019, it merged with the UPA after leaving the NDA.
More parties have joined the alliance since 2020. Despite widespread expectations, the alliance fell short in the Bihar election. In the elections of 2021 UPA particularly prevailed in only one of the five states. Besides all this, the alliance drastically enhanced in MLA-level elections.
Members of United Progressive Alliance:
- Indian National Congress.
- Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam.
- Janta Dal (United).
- Shiv Sena.
- Nationalist Congress Party.
- Rashtriya Janta Dal.
- Indian Union Muslim League.
- Jammu & Kashmir National Conference.
- Jharkhandnd Mukti Morcha.
- Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam.
- Revolutionary Socialist party (India).
- Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi.
- Hindustani Awam Morcha.
- Goa Forward Party.
- Kerala Congress.
- Revolutionary Marxist Party of India.
- Anchalik Gana Morcha.
- Kerala Congress (Jacob).
- Nationalist Congress Kerala.
- Assam Jatiya Parishad.