AMP full form in biology

AMP full form in biology

  • In biology, AMP stands for Adenosine Monophosphate.
  • Its IUPAC name is 5′-Adenylic acid
  • It is composed of three main components:
      1. A nucleobase, adenine
      2. Ribose sugar
      3. Single phosphate group

Production and degradation of AMP:


  • Enzyme: Adenylate Kinase
  • Reaction: ADP + ADP ⇌ AMP + ATP
  • Hydrolysis of ATP
  • Reaction: ATP + H₂O → AMP + PPᵢ (inorganic pyrophosphate)

Degradation of AMP:

  • Enzyme: 5′-Nucleotidase
  • Reaction: AMP + H₂O → Adenosine + Pᵢ (inorganic phosphate






Full form of AMP


·        Adenosine Monophosphate


Structure ·        Adenine base

·        Ribose sugar

·        Phosphate group

Cellular Location


·        Found in the cytoplasm and various cellular compartments


·        Synthesized within cells through various enzymatic reactions
Molecular Formula


·        C10H14N5O7P
Molecular Weight


·        347.22 g/mol


·        2.32 g/mL


·        Soluble in water
Acidity (pKa values)


·        Phosphate group pKa values: 1.0, 2.0, and 6.6


·        Stable under normal physiological conditions
Role in Cellular Processes


·        Precursor for ADP and ATP

·        Participates in cellular signaling and regulation

·        Involved in energy metabolism

Role in Cellular



·        Acts as a secondary messenger in signal transduction pathways
Energy Storage and



·        Serves as a low-energy form in the energy transfer processes
Building block of nucleic Acid


·        A component used to synthesize RNA during transcription
Role as a substrate


·        Substrate for various enzymes involved in cellular processes

A comparison between AMP,ADP,ATP

Molecule AMP ADP ATP
Full form Adenosine monophosphate Adenosine diphosphate Adenosine triphosphate
Structure Adenine + ribose + 1 phosphate Adenine + ribose + 2 phosphates Adenine + ribose + 3 phosphates
Molecular Formula C10H14N5O7P C10H15N5O10P2 C10H16N5O13P3
Energy level Low energy Intermediate energy High energy
Energy Storage/Transfer Not a primary energy carrier Stores and transfers energy Primary energy carrier in the cells
Role Precursor for ADP and ATP Participates in cellular energy metabolism

Acts as an energy carrier

Supplies energy for cellular processes

Muscle contractions, biosynthesis process

Phosphate Bonds One phosphate bond Two phosphate bonds Three phosphate bonds
Cellular Function Acts as a signaling molecule and participates in RNA synthesis Involved in coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic reactions Serves as an energy currency in the cells
Hydrolysis Hydrolyzed to form ADP Hydrolyzes to AMP Hydrolyzes to ADP or AMP depending on the reaction

A comparison between AMP and cAMP:


Property        AMP            cAMP
Full form Adenosine Monophosphate Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate
Chemical Formula C10H14N5O7P C10H12N5O6P


Addition of a phosphate group to adenosine by a kinase enzyme Formed by the action of Adenylate cyclase which converts AMP to cAMP
Role in Cellular Signaling Acts as a secondary messenger in some of the signaling pathways in the cells Acts as a secondary messenger in many of the signaling pathways of  cells
Role as Second Messenger Not considered a second messenger one of the most important second messengers in cellular signaling
Function in Signaling Participates in various cellular processes as a precursor to ADP and ATP Amplifies intracellular signals and

mediates responses to hormones and stimuli

Intracellular Target May act on different intracellular targets depending on the pathway Activates Protein Kinase A (PKA), which triggers downstream signaling events
Action on Cellular Processes Has a regulatory role in some metabolic pathways and signal transduction pathways Regulates gene expression


Cell growth and differentiation

Regulation by Phosphodiesterase Degradation by

Phosphodiesterases (PDEs)

Rapidly degraded by Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) to terminate its signaling effects
Action time Generally, short-lived signaling effects Usually has a more prolonged signaling effect due to its resistance to degradation


Present in cellular energy metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis Plays important role in various signaling pathways