How hard disk Works

Last modified on March 3rd, 2020 Download This Tutorial in PDF

Let us see, How hard disk Works?

hard disk parts

The hard disk is a non-volatile storage is used to store large amounts of data on a permanent basis.

If we want to know that how hard disk store the data? To get the answer,  we need to explain the structure of a hard disk. A hard drive attached to the computer by a specific type of point of attachment or interface. The interface of hard drive must be matched with the interface of the motherboard.

A hard disk is consists of rotating platters coated with magnetic martial. It has read and wire head on per platter. The platters spin or rotate at a specific speed, arms move around the platters. The two motors, one to move the disk and another set position the head and protect the disk from dust.

The surface of each platter is divided into small regions known as domains, this used to store the number 0 or 1.

All the data is stored on sectors and tracks. Each track has many small sectors. The flow of data from hard disks is controlled by the operating system.

For performing a specific function all components work with each other. For every task of transferring data, the operating system has a File Allocation Table (FAT). The OS communicates with the disk controller through this table. The movements of the arm are controlled by a disk controller according to the instruction provided by  OS. In a hard disk, all the data read and stored magnetically.

The read and write head present on the arms used to move onto different sectors to check for required data or place for data storage.

For instance, if the computer plans to read information present in the hard drive, it considers the magnetic polarities on the platter. These magnetic polarities are interpreted as 1’s and 0’s and read by the computer.

Top 10 jobs after a computer science degree

I am sharing with you a list of Top 10 jobs after a computer science degree.

Data Engineer

In this job, Data Engineer will develop and maintain large databases as well as complex and large-scale data processing systems. For this, all work a Data Engineer must have comfortable working abilities. This job needs a large knowledge of query and database skills.

Computer and Network System and Administrators

This is a wonderful and excellent computer job that can be getting with just a bachelor’s degree. In this job, a systems administrator is responsible for the everyday operations of the physical computer networks within the company. The average salary of Systems administrators’ average is almost $72,560.

IT Auditor

It is one of the highest paying computer jobs. In this job, you’ll be able to mainly identifying and summarizing the audit findings of your corporation to external stakeholders and executive bodies. The main reason the company or organization needs organizations to hire IT Auditors is to improve their internal processes.

Mobile Application Developer

Today the use of smart technology increases day-by-day. The need for mobile application developers will also increase. In this job, you need to develop an Application Software for various Operating Systems Such as windows, iOS, and Android, etc.

You must have a vast knowledge of programming languages like C++, C, Python, and JAVA, etc.AS a mobile application developer you must have the skill to understand all technical problems and find a technical solution for all problems in an efferent way.

Software Engineer

In this job software engineers write a code that allows computer application to run or work smoothly, to perform different functions. You must be able to for testing and debugging of the system.

You should have knowledge of programming language like python; Ruby, C++, and java etch.

Computer Support Specialists

These professionals help in solving software and hardware problems for large and small organizations in this job no need for a bachelor degree, if you have wide interesting computer and information technology, although it may help make you more attractive to employers. There are a variety of stable jobs that provide good salaries at a wide variety of educational levels

Data Scientist

Nowadays a data engineers, skillful data scientists are always on demand and enterprises are ready to spend big bucks behind them. As data is the backbone of success for any organization. It is one of the charming and excellent .the data scientists will receive the highest pays in the computer field.

Web Developer

If you have a great interest in web development you can do a job as a web developer. The web developers are responsible for company websites, intranets, and applications.

The web developers are self-employed, and those in this profession make an average annual salary of $62,500, or $30.05 per hour. For this job, you must have knowledge of all websites developing languages like HTML, CSS, JavaScript, jquery, etc.

Information Security Manager

In this job, the Information security managers are responsible for the safety of their organization’s computers, data, and networks against unauthorized access, such as security breaks, computer viruses or attacks by a cybercriminal.

They are responsible for the organization’s security measures, like anti-virus software and password. They work against different attacks to maintain the efficiency of security measures.

IS Managers will also responsible for checking reports generated by the monitoring system to indicate different threats?

They also give training to new employees with a bachelor’s degree in computer or information science is the educational requirement to work as an information systems security manager.

Computer and Information Research Scientists

One of the excellent computer career jobs is a research this job research scientists do research to solve different complex computer problems in several industries, and discover new ways to use the ways we use technology.

You must need a Ph.D. to be a research scientist; you may be able to get a federal job in this field with a bachelor’s degree.

Job Description of Database Administrator

Let us see the Job Description of Database Administrator.

  • Design the conceptual design for a planned database
  • Responsible for both back-end organization of data and front-end accessibility for end-users
  • Check the logical design so that it can be changed into a specific data model
  • More refining the physical design to fulfill storage requirements
  • Test new versions of the database management system (DBMS)
  • Responsible for maintaining the integrity and performance of company databases
  • Must be able to provide data security
  • Aware end users of changes in databases and train them to utilize systems
  • Make sure the security of company data
  • Have control access permissions and privileges
  • Able to develop, manage and test back-up and recovery plans
  • Checking  storage and archiving procedures are functioning correctly
  • Check out capacity planning
  • Able to work with IT project managers, database programmers, and multimedia programmers
  • Responsible for the evaluation of database software purchases
  • Able to study all existing database software to meet the needs of their employer
  • Able to troubleshoot database errors.
  • Responsible to implement emerging database technologies.
  • Design and manage database reports, visualizations, and dashboards.
  • Design automation for repeating database tasks.
  • All-time available for on-call support as needed.
  • create database documentation, including data standards, procedures, and definitions for the data dictionary (metadata)
  • Able to communicate regularly with technical, applications and operational staff to ensure database integrity and security
  • responsible for backup and recovery aspects of a database
  • must be familiar with programming languages API
  • have great problem-solving skills
  • Bachelor degree in a computer discipline or relevant certification
  • experience with database standards and end-user applications
  • Deep knowledge of data backup, recovery, security, integrity and SQL
  • Able to establish the needs of users and monitoring user access and security
  • check performance and manage parameters in order to provide fast responses to front-end users
  • maintain data standards, including adherence to the Data Protection Act
  • Design processes for optimizing database security.
  • Able to maintain database standards.
  • Ability to manage database access.
  • Install, upgrade, and manage database applications.

Job descriptions for web Developers

This post is the list of the Job descriptions for web Developers.

Following list describe all web developer job description.

  1. Able to design website layout or user interface by using standard HTML or CSS practices
  1. Must have experience in planning and transforming software platforms used across various products and organizational units.
  2. Have deep expertise on experience with Web Applications and programming languages such as HTML, CSS, JavaScript, JQuery etc.
  1. Have great functional knowledge or hands on design experience with Web Services.
  2. gathered data from various back-end services and databases


  1. Creating well designed testable, strong code by using best software development tools.
  2. Designing  website layout/user interfaces by using standard HTML/CSS practices
  3. Integrating data from various back-end services and databases
  4. Must be able to stay with emerging technologies/industry trends and apply them into operations and activities
  5. Communicate with web designers to match visual design intent
  1. Present design specs
  2. Solve all website problems
  3. Maintain and modify websites
  4. Stay up-to-date on technology
  5. Have Strong security of principles and how they apply to E-Commerce applications
  6. Graphic design
  7. Deep knowledge in HTML, CSS, JavaScript, PHP, and other relevant web design coding languages.
  8. The position requires constant communication with colleagues
  9. Must be responsible for maintaining, expanding, and scaling our site
  10. Collect and refine specifications and requirements based on technical needs
  11.         Design and maintain software documentation
  12. Programming skill in JavaScript, JQuery, HTML, HTML5, CSS, CSS3, Web Programming
  13. Able to develop ideas.
  14. Must have the skill of independent judgment

Job Description for a software developer or programmer

This is the list of Job Description for a software developer or programmer.

  • checking the product in controlled, real situations before going live
  • the ability of training manuals for users
  • creating and implementing efficient code
  • emulate all operational practicality
  • A deep understanding of business
  • Have strong commercial experience
  • The ability to research, designing, implementing and managing software programs
  • Maintain running systems.
  • Experience in current computer hardware and software
  • Must be able to use one or more development language C++, PHP, HTML, etc.
  • Have Strong communication skills
  • Ability to work with a team
  • Ability to Work closely with analysts, designers, and staff
  • creating detailed specifications and writing the program codes
  • ability to learn advanced languages and technologies
  • The strong skill of troubleshooting
  • Have the ability to identifying problems
  • Testing the new programs
  • Ability to check the area of modification in existing programs and subsequently developing these modifications
  • Troubleshoot, debug and change existing software
  • collect and check user feedback
  • Give and execute improvements
  • design technical documentation for reference and reporting
  • Designing quality assurance procedures
  • Deploying software tools, processes, and metrics
  • Maintaining and changing existing systems
  • Able to train the new user
  • Having a great knowledge of languages like C++, Java, JavaScript, and frameworks/systems.
  • Experience with databases and Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) frameworks (e.g. Hibernate)
  • Degree in BSc/BA in Computer Science, Engineering or a related field
  • Check and deploy programs and systems
  • Knowledge about Agile development methodologies
  • Rechecking of current systems
  • Give ideas for system improvements, including cost proposals
  • Working closely with other developers, UX designers, business and systems analysts
  • Experience with software design and development in a test-driven environment

Job descriptions of Computer network Architect

Let us see the Job descriptions of Computer network Architect.

There is the following list of description for the job of computer network Architect

  • Must have the knowledge to use network computer-aided design (CAD) software packages to optimize network designs
  • Able to prepare or monitor project schedules, budgets, or cost control systems
  • Maintain or correlate the maintenance of network peripherals, such as printers.
  • Balance network sizes to fulfill all demands.
  • Must have good communication with customers, sales staff, or marketing staff to determine customer needs.
  • The test and research new hardware or software products to check performance.
  • Must be Visit vendors, attend meetings or different training sessions.
  • Good Communicate with vendors to get information about products, inform them to future needs, solve problems, or address system maintenance issues.
  • Create design presentations and proposals for staff or customers.
  • Design or maintain project reporting systems.
  • Design technology roadmaps.
  • Analyze network drivers for software.
  • Perform network solving problems and provide batter solutions for all problems.
  • change network hardware and software components as required.
  • Assess vendor reassignment/test strategies.
  • Analyze, engineer, and execute software functions.
  • Check the production direction.
  • Gather all the functional requirements in documents.
  • Design test plans, implementation plans, and project timelines for various projects.
  • Manage technology vendors
  • Solve complex problems with many variables.
  • Train the engineers or other staff in the design or implementation of network solutions.
  • Explain all the design requirements for integration or test engineers.
  • Maintain networks by performing well by following activities such as file addition, deletion, or backup.
  • Design or recommend network security measures, such as firewalls, network security audits, or automated security probes.
  • Design procedures to track, project, or report network availability, reliability, capacity, or utilization
  • Correlate the installation of new equipment.
  • Correlate network operations, maintenance, repairs, or upgrades.
  • Correlate network or design activities with designers of associated networks.
  • Create or operate equipment configuration prototypes, such as network hardware, software, server.
  • Create, organize, and deliver product awareness, skills transfer, or product education sessions for staff or suppliers.
  • Monitor network designs to determine whether customer requirements are met efficiently and effectively.
  • Check the network performance and data as input and output and reports to detect problems, identify inefficient use of computer resources, or perform capacity planning.
  • Take part in network technology upgrade or expansion projects, including installation of hardware and software and integration testing.
  • Create detailed network specifications, such as diagrams, charts, equipment configurations, or recommended technologies.
  • Design plans or budgets for network equipment replacement.
  • Evaluate the time and materials required to complete projects.
  • Design implement solutions for network problems.
  • Design conceptual, logical, or physical network designs.
  • Design disaster recovery plans.
  • Design network-related documentation.
  • Design and write procedures for installation, use, or troubleshooting of communications hardware or software.

Job description for information security Analysis

Let us see the Job description for information security Analysis.

An information security analyses have the following abilities

  1. Communicate Up, Down, and Across All Levels of the Organization
  1. Communication
  2. Create, Modify, and Update Security Information Event Management (SIEM) Tools
  3. Creativity
  4. Administers Information Security Software and Controls
  5. Analytical
  6. Discovering the Vulnerabilities in Information Systems
  7. Evaluate and Deconstruct Malware Software
  8. Experience With Intrusion Prevention Systems
  9. Information Technology Knowledge
  10. Improve Security Efficiency
  11. Handling the Process for Managing Network Security
  12. Detail Oriented
  13. Monitor Compliance with Information Security Policies and Procedures
  14. Remediate Security Issues
  15. Manage Security Monitoring
  16. Respond to Requests for Specialized Cyber Threat Reports
  17. Manage Cyber and Technical Threat Analyses
  18. To educate Organization on Security Measures
  19. To educate Organization on Security Measures
  20. Implement and Maintain Security Frameworks for Existing and New Systems
  21. Analyze Security System Logs, Security Tools, and Data
  22. To educate Organization on Security Measures
  23. Problem-Solver
  24. Install Firewall and Data Encryption Programs
  25. Maintain Security Records of Monitoring and Incident Response Activities
  26. Prevent Hacker Intrusion
  27. Familiar with Security Regulations and Standards
  28. It Provide Host-Based Forensics
  29. Great Understanding of Risk Management Framework
  30.  Situational and Incident-Related Reports
  31. Network and System Administration Experience
  32. Support and Manage Security Services
  33. Team Player
  34. Up-To-Date on Relevant Technologies
  35. Stay One Step Ahead of Cyber Attacks
  36. Great Technical Background in Data Loss Prevention
  37. Monitor computer for security issues
  38. Able to install security measures and operate software to protects the system
  39. Bachelor degree in computer science
  40. MBA in Information System


Job description for a hardware engineer

Let us see the detailed Job description for a hardware engineer.

Following list describe the descriptions for a hardware engineer

  1. Able to create and develop the software systems that control computers.
  2. Create and test circuits and other electronic components
  3. Must be all work and refine processes.
  4. Able to perform re-testing and ensure they work properly.
  5. Check and describe problems.
  6. Check and train the technicians and other engineers during the development phase.
  7. Design, test and change product prototypes.
  8. modify existing computer components so that it will work with new software
  9. Monitor all manufacturing process for computer hardware
  10. Keep all knowledge of computer engineering trends and new technology
  11. Formed all specifications for parts.
  12. Control the working of processes.
  13. Correlate information and give idea about appropriate hardware to users.
  14. Develop and support input and output, including CPUs, support logic, microprocessors, custom integrated circuits, and printers and disk drives.
  15. Check the power supply requirements and configuration.
  16. Gathered data for analysis of system capabilities
  17. Test the results and change the design as needed
  18. Able to evaluate the effectiveness of the design and update if necessary.
  19. Calculate cost, reliability, and safety factors.
  20. Compose all the components into the final design.
  21. Check the completed models of the computer hardware they design
  22. Develop and monitor the production of computer hardware equipment.
  23. Create new design like computer hardware, creating blueprints of computer equipment to be built

Job Descriptions for Network Administrator

let us see the Job Descriptions for Network Administrator.

  1. Check network performance availability, utilization, throughput, goodput, and latency and test for weaknesses
  2. Set the user accounts, like password
  3. Able to maintain network connectivity of all computer workstations.
  4. Able to provide network support to users.
  5. Describe network policies and rules.
  6. Able to provide the facilities of supporting, configuring, maintaining and upgrading corporate customer’s networks and in house servers
  7. Ability to install and integrate new server hardware and applications
  8. Check out for needed updates
  9. Develop technical support documentation for systems and applications.
  10. Strong knowledge of networking concepts
  11. Check and give security improvements and system upgrades.
  12. Able to monitor the network to check optimal performance.
  13. Design and maintain network users/permissions.
  14. Familiarity  with scripting languages
  15. Deep interpersonal skills to handle complex technical issues
  16. BS degree in Computer Science or a related field
  17. Two-year experience in a network administration role
  18. I have also experience with Microsoft Windows Server 2008, 2012.
  19. Must have experience with Cisco switches and routers preferred
  20. MCSE certification a plus
  21. Have great troubleshooting capabilities
  22. Able to work independently under some supervision
  23. Must familiar with server management and monitoring tools
  24. Update the user needs.
  25. Must provide great network security.
  26. Have the ability to prove network engineering.
  27. Ability to prove network operations, and network performance analysis skills
  28. Strong problem-solving ability
  29. Must provide network support with a variety of operating systems.
  30. Install and configure computer network components.
  31. Maintain all hardware.
  32. Resolve all the problems of the end-user.
  33. Providing network and system support
  34. Able to work with IT experts
  35. Able to manage budget

How to write meeting minutes of daily, weekly, and monthly meetings?



AT 1830 HRS on 3 June 2012

Present           Designation

Dr. XYZ          (Chairman)               Vice Chancelor

Prof. XYZ      (Secretary)               Head of Department

Mr. XYZ          (Asst. Secretary)    Staff Officer to Vice Chancelor


The meeting was a routine the general weekly coordination meeting of XYZ UNIVERSITY.

I.Time staggering issues

ACTION BY: Faculty Members

The Chairman discussed the matter of time staggering especially from 11:00 to 11:45 AM. Faculty members are requested to cooperate to manage the rush by announcing to leave the classes and corridors silently.

II         Student Counseling

ACTION BY:  Dean HOD’s, and Faculty members

The Chairman discussed the matter related to the counseling of students. Faculty members are requested to educate the students regarding basic manners, special attention is given to their attitude & dressing.

The Chairman directed faculty members to disseminate the weekly message to the students in their respective classes.

III         Other issues

ACTION BY:  Dy.Registrar, All Faculty Members, Clerks

The Chairman directed all faculty members to share all important information with other concerned individuals who will not present in the meeting. Furthermore, Chairman instructed faculty members not to share EGS or any other internal working with students.

The Chairman discussed the matter related to the less usage of projectors.

The Chairman Advised all faculty members to show appropriate and unbiased behavior with students.

Section allocation for the students of extra enrolled courses will be done by FO.

IV        Enrollment of Failed Students

ACTION BY:  Ms. XYZ, Mr. XYZ  (Secretary),

The issue of enrolment of students during the Fall semester for failed subjects was discussed in length. Students who will not enroll himself till Saturday cannot allow attending the classes by Monday

XYZ University

03 June 2012

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