Environmental Science MCQs

What could be used to control the soil-borne plant pathogens.?
(a). Lowering pH
(b). Adding lime
(c). Increasing pH
(d). All of these

Answer: Lowering pH

Which belongs to a specific lignin-degrading fungu.s?

(a). White – rot
(b). Brown – rot
(c). Soft – rot
(d). Red – rot

Answer: White – rot

The process of creating activated sludge results in a significant decrease in the quantity of intestinal pathogens.?
(a). Competition
(b). Competition and adsorption
(c). Predation, competition and adsorption
(d). Competition, adsorption, predation and settling

Answer: Competition, adsorption, predation and settling

What element of the Geographic Information System (GIS) is not present.?
(a). Projection
(b). Overlay
(d). Measuring distance and connectivity

Answer: Projection

Which of the following disinfection techniques does not cause organochlorine synthesis.?
(a). Ozonation
(b). Chloroamination
(c). Chlorination
(d). None of these

Answer: Ozonation

When was the biomass pyramid created.?
(a). Greenland ecosystem
(b). Forest ecosystem
(c). Aquatic ecosystem
(d). All of these

Answer: Aquatic ecosystem

What is the standard operating procedure for a sewage treatment plant.?
(a).Flocculation → Aeration → Recarbonation → Sedimentation → Filtration → Disinfection
(b). Aeration → Sedimentation → Flocculation → Filtration → Recarbonation → Disinfection
(c). Aeration → Flocculation → Sedimentation → Recarbonation → Filtration → Disinfection
(d). Sedimentation → Flocculation → Aeration → Filtration → Recarbonation → Disinfection

Answer: Aeration → Flocculation → Sedimentation → Recarbonation → Filtration → Disinfection


Which of the following is not a part of the EIA methodologies used to evaluate the environmental effects of development activities.?
(a). Checklist
(b). Flexible
(c). Network
(d). Adhoc

Answer: Flexible

Describe Ecomark.?
(a). Label given to recycled products
(b). Land mark indicating the boundaries of bioparks
(c). Label given to an environment friendly products
(d). Label given to non-recyclable products

Answer: Label given to an environment friendly products

Do highly flammable chemicals and liquids have a flash point.?
(a).lower than 23 °C
(b). between 23 and 26 °C
(c). between 27 and 31 °C
(d). between 32 and 40 °C

Answer: lower than 23 °c

How long will the EIA report for a hydropower project be valid after it has received environmental approval.?
(a). 5 years
(b).10 years
(c). 30 years
(d). 6 years

Answer: 10 years

What action should be taken if the effect level of a development project cannot be determined during the EIA screening stage.?
(a). Scoping stage is to be followed.
(b). Detail EIA study is to be conducted
(c). A rapid EIA study is to be conducted
(d). The project should be given Environmental Clearance

Answer: A rapid EIA study is to be conducted

Aquifers are underground reservoirs that run continuously from the surface of the earth through highly permeable material.?
(a). Aquitards
(b). Unconfined aquifers
(c). Confined aquifers
(d). Auicludes

Answer: Unconfined aquifers

The Ministry of Environment and Forest has a committee that examines the Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management Plan reports of developmental projects.?
(a). Project Assessment Committee
(b).Project Evaluation Committee
(c). Project Appraisal Committee
(d). Project Estimate Committee

Answer: Project Appraisal Committee

Which of the following activities is permitted in CRZ-I, as per CRZ notification 2011.?
(a) Removal of mangroves for housing activities.
(b).Storage of hazardous cargo
(c).Pipelines, conveying systems including transmission lines.
(d).Reclamation of salt marshes and nesting grounds.

Answer: Pipelines, conveying systems including transmission lines.

Ash makes up the least percentage of a typical municipal solid waste.?
(a). Textiles
(b). Plastic
(c). Leather
(d). Rubber

Answer: Textiles

Which of the following is not a factor in global warming.?
(a). SF6
(b). O3
(c). NO
(d). HFCs

Answer: NO


Which one of the following statements best describes the dataset’s shape.?
(a). The range is larger than interquartile range
(b). The range is equal to five times the standard deviation.
(c).The mean is much smaller than median
(d). The range is twice the standard deviation

Answer: The mean is much smaller than median

What are the baseline data in an EIA.?
(a). Demographic and socio-economic data
(b). Existing environmental status of the identified study area
(c). Assessment of risk on the basis of proposal
(d).Theenvironmental consequences by mapping

Answer: Existing environmental status of the identified study area


If a 70 kg person drinks 2L of water every day for 70 years at the recommended chloroform concentration of 0.10 mg/L, their upper bound cancer risk will be.?
(a).37 in 1 million
(b). 25 in 1 million
(c).17 in 1 million
(d). 5 in 1 million

Answer: 17 in 1 million


Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) contains arsenic from a number of key sources.?
(a). Pigments in plastics
(b). Rubber products
(c). Batteries
(d). Household pesticides

Answer: Household pesticides


Which of the following is not an informal programme for environmental education and awareness.?
(a). GlobalLearning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE).
(b). NationalEnvironment Awareness Campaign (NEAC).
(c). Eco-clubs
(d). Environmental Education in School System

Answer: Environmental Education in School System

The mean () of the t-distribution for degrees of freedom (df) greater than one is.?
(b). 2
(c). Zero
(d). depends on df

Answer: Zero

REDD stands for.?
(a). Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation
(b). ReducingEnvironmental Degradation and Forest Degradation
(c).Recurring Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation
(d). Reducing Emissions from Degradable Deposits of Wastes

Answer: Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation

The UV-C radiation’s wavelength range is.?
(a). 200 – 280 nm
(b). 0320 – 400 nm
(c). 180 – 240 nm
(d). 240 – 300 nm

Answer: 200 – 280 nm

Which radioactive substance is regarded as a pollution indoors.?
(a). Oxygen – 18
(b). Nitrogen – 15
(c). Radon
(d). Carbon – 13

Answer: Radon

A volcano’s column height and ejecta volume are 108.5 m3 and 24 km, respectively. What is the value of the volcano’s explosivity index.?

(a). 2
(b). 8
(c). 4
(d). 7

Answer: 4

In a gas chromatography experiment, pollutant ‘A’ and pollutant ‘B’ retention factors (Rf) were 0.5 and 0.125, respectively, in a mixture of pollutants.?
(a). 0.5 and 0.125
(b). 3 and 1.5
(c). 6 and 1.5
(d). 1.5 and 3

Answer: 6 and 1.5


Which of the following equations relates to the material balance in the hydrological cycle and is true for oceans.?
(a). Input + change in storage = output
(b).Input – change in storage = output
(c). Precipitation + inflow = evaporation
(d). Precipitation – inflow = evaporation

Answer: Precipitation + inflow = evaporation


Radio tagging will be visible in cells cultured on a medium containing phosphorous-32 in?
(a). Starch
(b). Nucleic acids
(c). Proteins

Answer: Nucleic acids


The term “species” refers to an organism whose members only survive under human supervision or in captivity.?
(a). Ecologically extinct
(b). Mass extinct
(c). Wild extinct
(d). Anthropogenic extinct

Answer: Wild extinct

Which of the following best represents the proper order in hydrosere.?
(a). Diatoms → Wolffia → Hydrilla → Cyperus → Populus
(b). Diatoms → Hydrilla → Wolffia → Cyperus → Populus
(c). Cyperus → Diatoms → Hydrilla → Wolffia → Populus
(d).Hydrilla → Wolffia → Cyperus → Populus → Diatoms

Answer: Diatoms → Hydrilla → Wolffia → Cyperus → Populus


Which of the following is not a salinity-based classification of aquatic ecosystems.?
(a).Brackish ecosystem
(b). Freshwater ecosystem
(c). Stagnant water ecosystem
(d). Marine ecosystem

Answer: Stagnant water ecosystem

A technique called “double digging?
(b). Deforestation
(c). Bio-intensive agriculture
(d). Water conservation

Answer: Bio-intensive agriculture

In which of the following regions of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum does vegetation show the highest reflectance.?
(a). Ultraviolet
(b). Visible
(c). Middle infrared
(d). Near infrared

Answer: Near infrared

The spectral reflection of plants over the electromagnetic radiation spectrum during remote sensing of the vegetation cover depends on.?
(a). Pigmentation in the leaf
(b). Structure of the leaf
(c). Moisture content of the leaf
(d). All the above characters

Answer: All the above characters

When it’s cloudy outside or at night, the mood is.?
(a). stable
(b). unstable
(c). slightly stable
(d). neutral

Answer: neutral

The freshwater ecosystem’s limnetic zone is distinguished by.?
(a). Presence of rooted vegetation
(b).Presence of large proportion of lime
(c). Absence of rooted vegetation
(d). Absence of phytoplankton

Answer: Absence of rooted vegetation

What procedures are followed in the post-disaster recovery phase of disaster management.?
(a).Relief, mitigation, emergency plans.
(b). Risk Assessment, mitigation, preparedness, emergency plans.
(c). Relief, rehabilitation, reconstruction, learning – review
(d). Learning – review, emergency plans, preparedness.

Answer: Relief, rehabilitation, reconstruction, learning – review

Which substance has the highest hydraulic conductivity among the others.?
(a). Clay
(b). Limestone
(c). Sandstone
(d). Quartzite

Answer: Sandstone

In the initial stages of landfill, which of the following gas is predominantly released.?
(a). Hydrogen Sulphide
(b). Methane and Ammonia
(c). Methane
(d). Carbon dioxide

Answer: Carbon dioxide

The following information is provided for a solar flat plate collector: Solar radiation intensity is 350 watts/m2 per hour, the useful heat gain is 28 watts/m2 per hour, and the conversion factor from beam radiation to radiation on the collector’s plane is 1.2. The collector’s productivity is.?
(a).~ 12.2 %
(b). ~ 4.8 %
(c). ~ 6.6 %
(d). ~ 15.2 %

Answer: ~ 6.6 %

Which isotope among the following has the longest half-life.?
(a). Rn222
(b). Bi210
(c). Ti210
(d). Pb210

Answer: Pb210

Which soil has the greatest capacity for storing water.?
(a). Sandy loam
(b). Heavy clay
(c). Clay loam
(d). Loam

Answer: Heavy clay

Which of the following is not a moderator in nuclear thermal reactors.?
(a). Normal water
(b). Heavy water
(c). Graphite
(d). Liquid Helium

Answer: Liquid Helium

Which of the following energy sources cannot be renewed over the course of a human lifetime.?
(a). Geothermal
(b). Hydrothermal
(d). Biomass

Answer: Geothermal

The main worry with regard to land removal in forest regions in the context of REDD+ programmes is.?
(a). Carbon budget of the area
(b). Ecology of the area
(c).Physical resources of the area
(d). Water resources of the area

Answer: Carbon budget of the area

Which of the following is utilised as a plant indicator to find SO2 and HF in the ai.r?

(a). Lichen
(b). Orchid
(c). Apricot
(d). Tobacco.

Answer: Lichen

What is the minimum temperature gradient (°C/km) necessary for OTEC.?
(a). 40
(b). 10
(c). 20
(d). 60

Answer: 20

A solar pond is capable of producing 600 MWe of electricity. What is the area of the solar pond if the conversion of solar energy to electricity has a conversion efficiency of 2% and the solar energy supply rate is 300 W/m2.?
(a). 90 km2
(b). 100 km2
(c). 60 km2
(d). 180 km2

Answer: 100 km2


The earth’s surface cools yet the atmosphere warms, which of the following is true.?
(a). Black carbon aerosols
(c). All Greenhouse gases
(d). Sulphates and nitrates

Answer: Black carbon aerosols

Which fuels should come first in the proper order of increasing carbon intensity.?
(a). Natural gas < Oil < Bituminous coal < Nuclear
(b). Nuclear < Natural gas < Oil < Bituminous coal
(c). Nuclear < Coal < Natural gas < Oil
(d).Oil < Coal < Natural gas < Nuclear

Answer: Nuclear < Natural gas < Oil < Bituminous coal

What is the cause of asphyxia.?
(b). HCN, COCl2
(c). CHCl3
(d). AsH3

Answer: HCN, COCl2

What is connected to the existence of toxic gases like H2S and CH4 in an aquatic system.?
(a). abundant algal growth
(b). absence of macrophytic vegetation
(c). oxygen depletion
(d). excess of dissolved oxygen

Answer: oxygen depletion

Which of the following organic substances is not derived from living things.?
(a). Isoprene
(b). Acrolein
(c). Myrcene
(d). α-pinene

Answer: Acrolein


For the following paired data (x, y): (2, 1.4), (4, 1.8), (8, 2.1), (8, 2.3), and (9, 2.6), what is the Pearson Linear Correlation Coefficient (r).?
(a). 0.623
(b). – 0.572
(c). 0.957
(d). 0.823

Answer: 0.957


A city’s wastewater treatment facility processes the 50,000 m3 of wastewater produced daily. What should the diameter of the circular primary settling tank be for a flow rate of 25 m3 per day per square metre on average.?
(a). 50.4 m
(b). 30.6 m
(c). 20 m
(d). 25.8 m

Answer: 50.4 m

What is the primary source of BaP (benzo-a-pyrene) in the atmosphere?
(a). residential wood burning
(b). gasoline
(c). coal tar
(d). cooked meat

Answer: residential wood burning

What is the management of hazardous waste hierarchy.?
(a). Eliminate generation →Reduce generation → Treatment → Recycle/Reuse→ Disposal
(b). Reduce generation Eliminate generation →Recycle/Reuse → Treatment→ Disposal
(c).Eliminate generation Reduce generation → Recycle /Reuse → Treatment →Disposal
(d). Reduce generation- Eliminate generation → Treatment → Recycle/Reuse→ Disposal

Answer: Eliminate generation Reduce generation → Recycle /Reuse → Treatment →Disposal


What is a downside to checklists.?
(a). Preliminary analysis is available in scaling checklist
(b). Checklistssummarises information to make it available to experts
(c). Checklists are too general or incomplete
(d). Ecosystem functions can be clearly understood from weighting methods

Answer: Checklists are too general or incomplete

What does the EIA’s risk assessment not include.?
(a). Maximum credible analysis
(b). Assessment of economic benefit arising out of a project
(c). Preparation of disaster management plan
(d).Hazard and operability studies

Answer: Assessment of economic benefit arising out of a project

What does permafrost mean.?
(a).frozen needles of pine trees
(b). frozen leaves of Oak trees
(c). permanently frozen subsurface soil
(d). temporarily frozen subsurface soil

Answer: permanently frozen subsurface soil

What temperature is applied to medical waste in a gravity flow autoclave.?
(a). > 300 °C
(b). < 100 °C
(c). > 120 °C
(d). > 800 °C

Answer: > 120 °C

What year did the Public Liability Insurance Act become law.?
(b). 1993
(c). 1991
(d). 1997

Answer: 1991

What can be best removed using Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology.?
(a). Particulates and sulphur
(b). CO and SO2
(c).NO2 and CO
(d). NO2 and SO2

Answer: Particulates and sulphur

The wind speed in a rocky terrain is 2.5 m/s at a height of 10 m. At 300 metres above sea level, what will the wind speed be.?
(a). 4.9 m/s
(b). 1.2 m/s
(c).3.6 m/s
(d). 7.9 m/s

Answer: 4.9 m/s

What combination of gases is referred to as biogas.?
(a). CO2, CH4, NH3, H2S, H2O(vapour
(b). CO2, CH4, N2O, NH3, H2O(vapour)
(c).CO, CH4, NH3, H2S, H2O(vapour)
(d). CO2, NOx, H2O, CH4

Answer: CO2, CH4, NH3, H2S, H2O(vapour)


With a collector plate size of 5000 m2, an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) can treat flue gases with a drift velocity of 0.12 m/s with 98% efficiency. The flue gas’s volumetric flow rate (m3/s) equals.?
(a). ~ 153.4
(b). ~ 213.5
(c).~ 175.2
(d). ~ 198.9

Answer: ~ 153.4

Environmental ethics examines how morally accountable humans are to.?
(a). the conservation values of selected species
(b). the values that are important to development and economic growth
(c).the value and moral status of the environment and its non-human contents
(d). the development of genetically modified organisms

Answer: the value and moral status of the environment and its non-human contents

What is the approximate scale length of vertical atmospheric pressure variations.?
(a). 3 km
(b). 7 km
(c). 4.8 km
(d). 12 km

Answer: 7 km

What is the name of the active, adaptive control method that can keep the system in balance overall.?
(a). Gaia Hypothesis
(b). Miller Hypothesis
(c). Bohr’s Hypothesis
(d). Kepler’s Law

Answer: Gaia Hypothesis


What chemical is created during the aerobic biodegradation of DDT.?
(a). DDD
(b). DDE
(c). DDS
(d). DDN

Answer: DDS

Where does the thermal stratification of aquatic habitats occur.?
(a). tropical lakes
(b). temperate lakes
(c). glacier lakes
(d). meandering rivers

Answer: temperate lakes

What does the rate of species replacement along a gradient of habitats apply to.?
(a). Beta diversity
(c). Gamma diversity
(b). Alpha diversity
(d). Species diversity

Answer: Beta diversity

Which of the following heavy metals is most prevalent in the earth’s crust.?
(a). Chromium
(b). Nickel
(c). Copper
(d). Zinc

Answer: Copper

Which gas has the highest absorption coefficient for solubility in water among the following.?
(a). Hydrogen
(b). Nitrogen
(c). Oxygen
(d). Carbon dioxide

Answer: Carbon dioxide

How much glucose (MW 180) is necessary to make 1000 ml of 5% solution.?
(a). 5 g
(b).9000 g
(c). 900 g
(d).50 g

Answer: 9000 g


Are endemic species.?
(a). Uniformly distributed across the landscape
(b). Widely distributed
(c). Restricted to a particular area
(d). Continuously distributed globally

Answer: Restricted to a particular area


What is an organism’s niche.?
(a). Profession
(c). Address
(d). Range

Answer: Profession

Urban areas have a mixing ratio of 50 grammes per kilogramme for moist air at 27 °C. How hot is it virtually.?
(a). 33.69 C
(b). 36.15 C
(c).38.15 C
(d). 32.30 C

Answer: 36.15 C

Which of the following is a site for the in-situ conservation of biodiversity.?
(a). Arboretum
(b). Botanical garden
(d).Biosphere reserve

Answer: Biosphere reserve

What is the name of the greatest group of climax communities that correspond to a distinct climatic zone.?
(a). Biome
(c). Biota
(d). Landscape

Answer: Biome

The fundamental water balance equation is if Q = stream flow, P = precipitation, E = evapotranspiration, S = net change in storage, and T = net underground transfers.?
(a). Q = (P + E) – ( S + T)
(b). Q = (P – E) + ( S + T)
(c).Q = (P – E) – ( S + T)
(d). Q = (P – E) – ( S – T)

Answer: Q = (P – E) + ( S + T)

Consumption of water with a high mineral content causes “blue baby syndrome.?
(a). Ammonia
(b). Sulphates
(c). Nitrates
(d). Sulphides

Answer: Nitrates

What percentage of the total fresh water volume does the frozen form make up.?
(a). 70 %
(b). 70 %
(c). 60 %
(d). 50 %

Answer: 70 %

The maximum power P generated in an ideal MHD power generator varies with the conducting fuel’s fuel velocity (u) as.?
(a). P max ∝ u2
(b). P max ∝ u
(c). P max ∝ u3
(d). P max ∝ u3/2

Answer: P max ∝ u2

Which of the following coal varieties has the most water.?
(a). Anthracite
(b). Bituminous coal
(c).Subbituminous coal
(d). Lignite

Answer: Lignite

The amount of energy is its intensity.?
(a). produced per year per unit area of the country
(b). consumed per unit gross domestic product
(c). consumed per year per unit area of the country
(d). consumed per year per unit area of the country

Answer: consumed per unit gross domestic product

Which fuel is the cleanest for producing electricity.?
(a). Coal
(b). Hydrogen
(c). Uranium
(d). Water

Answer: Hydrogen

Of the following, which is not a hot desert?
(a). Gobi
(b). Kalahari
(c). Thar
(d). Sahara

Answer: Gobi


What is the name of the mountain that towers a kilometre or more above the surrounding ocean floor.?
(a). Oceanic island
(b). Seamount
(c). Atoll
(d). Island arc

Answer: Seamount

Which as is the most poisonous form?
(a). As+3
(b). As+2
(c). As+6
(d). As+4

Answer: As+3


Which energy source is the most effective at creating electricity.?
(a). Hydro power
(b). Nuclear power
(c). Wind power
(d). Solar power

Answer: Nuclear power

What makes up the majority of the traditional smog.?
(a). NOx and smoke particulates
(b).SO2 and smoke particulates
(c). SO2 and NOx
(d). O3 and SO2

Answer: SO2 and smoke particulates

What category do particles with a diameter less than 0.002 mm fall under.?
(a). Cobble
(b). Pebble
(c). Silt
(d). Colloids

Answer: Colloids


Which best describes the noise climate.?
(a). 2/ 60L50
(c). L10 – L90
(d). (L10 – L90)

Answer: L10 – L90

What does Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) exclude.?
(a). Emergency Preparedness Plan
(b). Quantitative improvement in the process of the product
(c). Life Cycle Impact Analysis
(d).Life Cycle Inventory of the product

Answer: Emergency Preparedness Plan

What are the atmospheric methyl bromide’s natural sources?
(b). Volcanoes
(c) Ocean
(d). Vegetation

Answer: Ocean

What is the geometric mean of 4, 6, and 9.?
(b). 8
(c). 6
(d). 7

Answer: 6

A construction project needs both environmental clearance and authorization under?
(a). Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980
(b). Water Act, 1974
(c). National Environmental Tribunal Act, 1995
(d). Air Act, 1981

Answer: Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980

Who handles the accreditation of environmental consulting firms in India.?
(a). Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change
(b). Quality Council of India
(c). Ministry of Earth Sciences
(d). Central Pollution Control Board

Answer: Quality Council of India

What is the Indian Constitution’s Citizen’s Charter on Environment embodied in.?
(a). Article 48
(b). Article 51A
(c). Article 49A
(d). Article 48A

Answer: Article 51A

the location of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.?
(a). June, 1992
(b). December, 1993
(c). December, 1995
(d). November, 1996

Answer: June, 1992

In the year of, the Kyoto Protocol of 1997 introduced the idea of carbon trading.?
(a). 2000
(b). 2002
(c). 2001
(d). 2004

Answer: 2002

What is an exhaustive list of every object in the population.?
(a). Census
(b). Non-probability sampling
(c).Unrestricted sampling
(d). Sample survey

Answer: Census

Halons have a similar makeup to.?
(a). Hydrocarbons
(b). Halides
(c). CFCs
(d). Peptides

Answer: CFCs

‘Parameter’ is a term for an attribute connected to the information about.?
(a). sample
(b). sampling technique
(c). descriptive statistics
(d). population

Answer: population


A solar cell with a surface area of 5 cm2 produces a 0.1 A at 0.6 V current. The efficiency of the solar cell is 1.0 kW/m2 if the solar radiation intensity impinging on it is.?
(a). 6 %
(b). 3 %
(c). 12 %
(d). 30 %

Answer: 12 %


It’s the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development. ?
(a). 2000 – 2009
(b). 2020 – 2031
(c). 2010 – 2019
(d). 2005 – 2014

Answer: 2005 – 2014


What does “Pyrolysis of Solid Waste” mean.?
(a). High temperature aerobic incineration
(b). Ambient aerobic distillation
(c). High temperature anaerobic distillation of waste
(d). Ambient anaerobic distillation

Answer: High temperature anaerobic distillation of waste

What is the best method for getting rid of construction and demolition (C & D) waste.?
(a). Incineration
(b).Land fills
(d). Solidification

Answer: Land fills

There are two different types of values that environmental ethics distinguishes.?
(a). Social values and existence value
(b). Direct use values and social values
(c). Instrumental value and intrinsic value
(d). Indirect use value and aesthetic value

Answer: Instrumental value and intrinsic value

Which of the following approaches of biomedical waste disposal is typically not used.?
(b). Hydroclaving
(d). Shredding after

Answer: Landfilling

The method that measures organic carbon the quickest is.?
(a). COD
(b). TOC
(c). BOD7
(d). BOD5

Answer: TOC


According to what Article of the Indian Constitution, environmental protection, improvement, and the preservation of forests and animals are prioritised.?
(b). 21
(c). 48 A
(d). 47

Answer: 48 A


What portion of a true resource can be profitably developed in the future.?
(a). Reserved resources
(b). Potential resources
(c). Non-renewable resources
(d). Stock resources

Answer: Reserved resources


Under the terms of, the Environmental Relief Fund was formed.?
(a). The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
(b). The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991
(c). The Indian Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972
(d). The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980

Answer: The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991

As an example, what are turbulent updrafts and downdrafts flows.?
(a). Synoptic scale phenomena
(b). Micro-scale phenomena
(c). Meso-scale phenomena
(d). Planetary scale phenomena

Answer: Micro-scale phenomena

What is the name of the kind of lake that develops between two parallel faults in the depression of the earth’s crust.?
(a). Grade lake
(b). Surface lake
(c). Glacial lake
(d). Graben lake

Answer: Graben lake

a species-specific niche free from opposition from other species.?
(a). hyper volume niche
(b). habitat
(c). fundamental niche
(d). realized niche

Answer: fundamental niche


Dissipative process of energy during photosynthesis in a plant is.?
(a). Respiration
(b). Senescence
(c). Decomposition
(d). Mineralization of humus

Answer: Respiration

‘Lofting’ type of plume behaviour is noticed when in the atmosphere in the case of plumes from a tall stack placed on flat terrain.?
(a). strong lapse rate conditions exist.
(b). inversion conditions prevail below the stack height
(c). inversion conditions exist above the stack height
(d). weak lapse rate conditions exist

Answer: inversion conditions prevail below the stack height.


Which of the following is not typically regarded as toxic.?
(a). Acetaldehyde
(b). Carbon monoxide
(c). Carbonic acid

Answer: Carbonic acid

The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 was passed by the Indian government in Answer to which of the following.?
(a). River Ganga Water Pollution
(b). Endosulfan tragedy in Kerala
(c). Bhopal Gas Tragedy
(d). London Smog

Answer: Bhopal Gas Tragedy

What is the ratio of tropospheric ozone to total atmospheric ozone.?
(a). 90%
(b). 10%
(c). 50%
(d). 80%

Answer: 10%

Which of the following chemicals is the most dangerous to the atmosphere.?
(b). Carbon monoxide
(c). Dioxin
(d). CFCs

Answer: Dioxin

Which of the following is to be moved from CITES Appendix II to Appendix I by January 2017 in accordance with Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) COP 17.?
(a). Gorilla
(b). Tapir
(c). Pangolin
(d). Mongoose

Answer: Pangolin

What changes in water’s specific conductivity when temperature rises.?
(a). remains unchanged
(b). decreases
(c). increases
(d). makes the water turbid

Answer: increases

How much soil water is accessible to roots.?
(a). Surface water
(b). Capillary water
(c). Gravitational water
(d). Hygroscopic water

Answer: Capillary water

The maximum head of a 2000 MW dam is 200 m. How quickly does the water fall onto the turbines? (Ignore losses).?
(a). ~ 1020.41 m3/s
(b). ~ 1560.24 m3/s
(c).~ 102.00 m3/s
(d). ~ 800.00 m3/s

Answer: ~ 1020.41 m3/s

Normally, where are earth observational remote sensing satellites based.?
(a). Elliptical orbit
(b).Equatorial orbit
(c). Geo-synchronous orbit
(d).Sun-synchronous orbit

Answer: Sun-synchronous orbit

What is the taxonomic diversity of an area with various ecosystems?
(a). Gamma diversity
(b). Beta diversity
(c). Alpha diversity
(d). Sigma diversity

Answer: Gamma diversity

What is the name of the point where the light intensity is just right to produce energy through photosynthesis equivalent to the energy needed for respiration.?
(a). Equal point
(b). Compensation point
(c). Regulatory point
(d). Complementary point

Answer: Compensation point

WHich one of the following birds saw a 99% drop, according to ZSI (GOI).?
(a). White backed Vulture
(b). Pink-headed Duck
(c). Pond heron
(d). Sparrow

Answer: White backed Vulture


What is the term for the ocean current circulation pattern that is driven by the global pattern of prevailing winds.?
(a). Gyres
(b).Trade winds
(c). Jet Streams
(d). Shallow drifts

Answer: Gyres.

when a food web’s species diversity grows.?
(a).Energy flow decreases
(b). System tends to be unstable
(c). Food chain length tends to increase.
(d). System tends to collapse completely.

Answer: Food chain length tends to increase.

For the best methane generation in a biogas digestor using biomass and animal waste as feed, the pH value should initially.?
(a). pH < 6.2
(b). pH is in the range 6.6 to 7
(c). pH is in the range 7 to 7.2
(d). pH is in the range 7.6 to 8

Answer: pH is in the range 6.6 to 7

The 2016 AMCDRR (Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction) took place in.?
(a). Bangkok
(b). New Delhi
(c). Beijing
(d). Colombo

Answer: New Delhi

What is the greatest hydrogen fuel cell efficiency.?
(a). 0.96
(b). 0.92
(c). 0.83
(d). 0.72

Answer: 0.83

Where can you typically find plants?
(a).Temperature environment
(b). Humid and low temperature environment
(c).Arid and hot environment
(d). Semi-humid and rainy environment

Answer: Arid and hot environment

Magma begins to crystallise when it loses heat while rising from a deep source to a shallower level. Which of these is a Bowen’s Reaction Series.?
(a). Pyroxene, Hornblende, Olivine, Mica, Quartz
(b). Olivine, Pyroxene, Hornblende, Mica, Quartz
(c). Hornblende, Olivine, Mica, Pyroxene, Quartz
(d). Olivine, Pyroxene, Hornblende, Mica, Quartz

Answer: Olivine, Pyroxene, Hornblende, Mica, Quartz

Which of the following wave characteristics is not used to reduce noise.?
(a). Absorption
(b). Diffraction
(c). Interference
(d). Damping

Answer: Diffraction

Why does the reaction O2 2O, which creates ozone in the stratosphere, not take place in the troposphere.?
(a). absence of λ < 242 nm radiation
(b). lower tropospheric temperature
(c). high air pressure
(d). high gas molecule concentrations

Answer: absence of λ < 242 nm radiation

What is the name of the chart where frequencies are shown against class intervals.?
(a). Histogram
(b). Pie chart
(c). stem and leaf plot
(d). Box plot

Answer: Histogram

On the surface of the globe, what does each degree of latitude roughly represent.?
(a). 111 km
(b). 101 km
(c).91 km
(d). 121 km

Answer: 111 km

When is a severe drought declared.?
(a). Rainfall deficit exceeds 25 percent of the normal.
(b). Deficit of rainfall varies between 25-45 percent of the normal.
(c). Deficit of rainfall is more than 50 percent of the normal
(d). Rainfall deficit is between 15-25 percent of the normal

Answer: Deficit of rainfall is more than 50 percent of the normal

With regard to solar flat plate collectors, which of the following assertions is accurate? Glass or plastic glazing over the absorber plate.?
(a).Reduces conduction losses
(b). Reduces convection losses
(c). Reduces conduction and radiation losses
(d). Enhances the absorption of solar radiation onto the absorber plate.

Answer: Reduces convection losses

Which order should the environmental clearance process for new projects follow.?
(a). Appraisal → Screening → Scoping → Public Consultation
(b).Public Consultation → Appraisal → Screening → Scoping
(c). Scoping → Public Consultation → Appraisal → Screening
(d).Screening → Scoping → Public Consultation → Appraisal

Answer: Screening → Scoping → Public Consultation → Appraisal

Which substance has the longest oceanic residence duration among the following.?
(a). Sodium
(b). Lead
(c). Calcium

Answer: Sodium

What is the focus of the restoration of sites or landscapes on offshore islands.?
(a). Shallow drifts
(b). foster populations of endangered species without native or introduced predators
(c). increase the stabilization of surface cover and protect the animal corridor on land.
(d). provide linkage between movement and genetic interchange of species.

Answer: foster populations of endangered species without native or introduced predators

What is the R-square value in a multiple regression analysis when the variance of the observed variable Y is 1.57 and the variance of the residue is 0.52.?
(a). 0.85
(c). 0.72
(d). 0.67

Answer: 0.67

What does 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, and 100 mean as a median.?
(a). 3
(b). 4
(c). 5

Answer: 4

What are the characteristics of pH > 9.8 and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) > 40.?
(a). Strongly saline soil
(b). Weak saline soil
(c). Acidic soil
(d). Eroded soil

Answer: Strongly saline soil

What nation hosted the COP-22 climate conference.?
(a). Malaysia
(b). South Africa
(c). Morocco
(d). Indonesia

Answer: Morocco

What is the most significant global aerosol sink process.?
(a). Interception
(b). Wet deposition
(c). Impaction
(d). Sedimentation
Answer: Wet deposition

What are some medications that stop bacterial cell walls from forming.?
(a). Quinolones
(b). Tetracyclines
(c). Beta-lactams
(d). Aminoglycocides

Answer: Beta-lactams

When the atmosphere’s temperature drops faster than its dry adiabatic lapse rate, what is it called.?
(a). unstable
(b). highly stable
(c). stable
(d). conditionally unstable

Answer: unstable

Which sort of ecology produces the most litter mass.?
(a). Tropical rain forest
(b). Boreal forest
(c). Temperate deciduous forest
(d). Tropical seasonal forest

Answer: Boreal forest

The photodissociation of results in the oxygen atom species, which interacts with water to form a hydroxyl radical.?

(a). O2
(b). NO2
(c). O3
(d). H2O

Answer: O3

Which of the following concerning carbon isotopes is false.?
(a). C-13 is less abundant in vegetation than in oceans
(b). C-12 is most abundant in nature
(c). C-14 is absent in fossil fuels
(d). C-13 is used for carbon-dating

Answer: C-13 is used for carbon-dating

Among the following insecticides, which one is relatively more soluble in water.?
(a). Aldicarb
(b). Aldrin
(c). Malathion

Answer: Aldicarb

At a specific urban site, the temperature is 15 °C at a height of 25 m above the ground. When the environmental lapse rate is 1.25 °C per 100 m and the inversion conditions are present, the temperature at an elevation of 200 m will be.?
(a). 12.5 °C
(b). 17.25 °C
(c). 12.75 °C
(d). 17.5 °C

Answer: 17.25 °C

Which of the following regarding humus is false.?
(a). By decaying, humus supplies nitrogen to plants
(b). Humus acts as a reservoir of nitrogen for plants
(c). Its rate of decay and rate of nitrogen release follow plant growth.
(d). Rate of nitrogen release to plants is slow during warm growing season and fast during winter months

Answer: Rate of nitrogen release to plants is slow during warm growing season and fast during winter months

What are the main airborne bioparticulate allergens.?
(a).Insect debris and house dust mites
(b).Wool particles and cockroach calyx
(c). Animal dander and house dust
(d). Pollen grains and fungal spores

Answer: Pollen grains and fungal spores


What does an ecosystem’s Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) mean.?
(a). net rate of carbon gain by the plant after respiration losses
(b). total energy used to convert the sugar during growth.
(c). photosynthetic fixation rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide
(d). rate of release of oxygen through respiration of a plant.

Answer: photosynthetic fixation rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide


The improvement of a recipient person’s fitness through actions that lower a donor person’s evolutionary fitness is called.?
(a). Amensalism
(b). Parasitism
(c). Commonsalism
(d). Altruism

Answer: Altruism

Which sort of magma has the most silica in it.?
(a). Basaltic
(b). Rhyolitic
(c). Andesitic
(d). Peridotic

Answer: Rhyolitic

What is the term for the shift in species composition brought about by variables outside the biotic community.?
(a). Allogenic succession
(b).Temperate deciduous forest
(c). Autogenic succession
(d). Boreal forest

Answer: Allogenic succes Which group of following factors determine the discharge of a stream

mixing height at night usually falls between the range.?
(a). < few hundred metres
(b). 1 km – 2 km
(c).0. 2 km – 3 km
(d). 2 km – 3 km (4) 3 km – 4 km

Answer: < few hundred metres

Expired medications, broken mercury thermometers, spent batteries, and other home waste including paint cans, pesticide cans, CFL bulbs, tube lights, etc.?
(a). Household dry waste
(b). e-waste
(c).Composite waste
(d). Domestic hazardous waste

Answer: Domestic hazardous waste

Which kind of projects does not require EIA permission, as per the EIA announcement from 2006.?
(a). Category B2
(b). Category B1
(c).Category A
(d). Category A and B1

Answer: Category B2

Which of the following is not a part of the EIA process.?
(a). Implementation of EMS auditing procedures.
(b). Identification, prediction and assessment of environmental impacts
(c). Suggesting the mitigation and compensation measures
(d). Establishing the baseline environmental status.

Answer: Implementation of EMS auditing procedures.

The duration of an EIA clearance for a mining project in India is.?
(a). 10 years
(b). 30 years
(c). 5 years
(d). 20 years

Answer: 30 years

The goal in India is to produce enough electricity from small hydropower projects by the year 2022.?
(a). 10 GW
(b). 5 GW
(c). 50 GW
(d). 500 GW

Answer: 5 GW

Which of the following is not an animal listed on Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act of 1972.?
(a).Fishing Cat
(b). Himalayan Crestless Porcupine
(c). Bengal Porcupine
(d).Ferret Badgers

Answer: Fishing Cat

Has the Ministry of Corporate Affairs expanded the range of CSR initiatives in the Clean Ganga Fund, which the Central Government established to revitalise the Ganga River? v. notice issued in the year.?
(a). 2013
(b). 2014
(c). 2015

Answer: 2014

A permanent thermocline typically develops in open oceans at a depth of.?
(a). 100 – 200 m
(b). 500 – 800 m
(c). 200 – 400 m
(d). 800 – 1100 m

Answer: 500 – 800 m

Burning occurs at a rate of 0.5 kg/s for a certain sort of coal. How much sulphur dioxide is produced daily if the coal has a 5% sulphur content and 5% of that sulphur is still present in the ash.?
(a).1800 kg/day
(b).7776 kg/day
(c). 4104 kg/day
(d). 3600 kg/day

Answer: 4104 kg/day

What wetlands are included in the Montreux Record.?
(a). Keoladeo National Park
(b). Chilka Lake
(c). Tso Moriri
(d). Nal Sarovar

Answer: Keoladeo National Park

from the following, pick the true statement.?
(a). Groundwater pollution through chemical contamination in Ganga-Brahmaputra delta region are primarily due to
(b). Cadmium, Mercury, Iron
(c). Arsenic, Fluoride, Nitrate
(d). Nickel, Zinc, Manganese

Answer: Arsenic, Fluoride, Nitrate

In a closed thermodynamic system, across its boundaries.?
(a). no transfer of heat is possible.
(b).transfer of heat and work is possible.
(c). transfer of heat is possible but not of work.
(d).no transfer of work is possible
Answer: transfer of heat and work is possible.

Identify the correct order of the different types of coals based on water content (%).?
(a). Lignite > Sub-bituminous coal > Anthracite
(b). Sub-bituminous coal > Lignite > Anthracite
(c). Anthracite > Lignite > Sub-bituminous coal
(d). Lignite > Anthracite > Sub-bituminous coal

Answer: Anthracite > Lignite > Sub-bituminous coal

The following have been given notice of the effluent and emission standards for industries.?
(a). Motor Vehicle Act, 1988
(b). The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
(c). The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
(d). The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.

Answer: The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

In a GaAs solar cell, the band gap is.?
(a).~ 0.6 eV
(b). ~ 0.7 eV
(c). ~ 1.1 eV
(d). ~ 1.4 eV

Answer: ~ 1.4 eV

Which of the following radioactivity is more hazardous to biological systems for a given energy and exposure time.?
(a). X-rays
(b). Fast neutrons
(c). Heavy ions
(d). Fast protons

Answer: Heavy ions

Which pyramid is consistently upright.?
(A). Pyramid of biomass
(B). Pyramid of energy
(C).Pyramid of number
(D). Pyramid of number and biomass

Answer: Pyramid of energy

What type of elements in a landslip would indicate that the movement was rotational.?
(A). Rockflow,Debris flow, Earthflow
(B). Rock slump, Debris slump, Earth slump
(C). Rockfall, Debris fall, Earth fall
(D).Rock topple, Debris topple, Earth topple

Answer: Rock slump, Debris slump, Earth slump


Which of the following is a locust ecosystem example.?
(A). Bog ecosystem
(B). Pond ecosystem
(C). Stream ecosystem
(D). Wetland ecosystem

Answer: Stream ecosystem

What is the distance between the primary point and the conjugate principal point on an aerial photograph known as.?
(A). Relief
(B). Photo-base
(C). Tilt
(D).Focal length

Answer: Photo-base


What kind of animal is Azolla pinnata.?
(A). Blue green algae
(B). Fern
(C). Red algae
(D). Green algae

Answer: Fern

What is the name of the equatorial west to east remote sensing satellite that orbits the planet at a height of 36,000 km.?
(A). Sun-synchronous satellite
(B). Stereo imager
(C).Space shuttle
(D). Geostationary satellite

Answer: Geostationary satellite

A specific amount of fuel burns, releasing a total of 500 million tonnes of CO2 into the sky. What will the increase in CO2 concentration in ppm be if all of the CO2 is left in the atmosphere.?
(A). ~ 1.216 ppm
(B). ~ 0.128 ppm
(C).~ 2.312 ppm
(D) ~ 0.236 ppm

Answer: ~ 0.236 ppm

The effectiveness of using limestone in wet scrubbers to remove SO2 from flue gas can be as high as.?
(A). 30%
(B). 90%
(C). 70%
(D). 50%

Answer: 90%

Which of the following parameters is not a reliable sign of ground water contamination.?
(A). BOD
(B). Nitrates
(C). Chlorides
(D). Silica

Answer: Silica

Assume that the annual global coal production is 6.1 billion tonnes and that there are 1.1 trillion tonnes of viable coal resources. How long would it take, at the current pace of production, to exhaust those reserves.?
(A). ~ 120 years
(B). ~ 150 years
(C). ~ 180 years
(D) ~ 90 years

Answer: ~ 180 years

Which of the following restricts the size of the natural population without regard to density.?
(a). Severe drought
(b). Territoriality
(c). Predation
(d). Sex ratio

Answer: Severe drought

Which of the following regions is not a hotspot for atmospheric brown clouds (ABC).?
(A). East-Asia
(B). Australia
(C). Amazon Basin in South America
(D).South Africa

Answer: Australia

What kind of radiations cause the photolysis of NO2.?
(A). < 600 nm
(B). < 390 nm
(C).< 480 nm
(D). < 550 nm

Answer: < 390 nm

The oxidation ponds normally have a depth of.?
(A). 5 – 10 m
(B). 2 – 5 m
(C). 1 – 2 m
(D).10 – 20 m

Answer: 1 – 2 m

In the profundal zone, what is the P/R ratio.?
(a).< 1
(b). > 1
(c). = 1
(d). > 0.1

Answer: < 1

Among the following taxonomic groups which one has the least number of known species. ?
(a). Nematodes
(b). Fungi
(c). Porifera
(d). Insecta

Answer: Porifera


Approximately 97% of the total atmospheric mass is found up to a height of.?
(a). ~ 10 km
(b). ~ 30 km
(c). ~ 20 km
(d).~ 15 km

Answer: ~ 30 km

In oxisol, where is the forest.?
(a). Evergreen forest with cold climate
(b). Temperate grassland with hot summer and cold winter
(c). Tropical rainforest with wet and hot climates.
(d). Temperate deciduous forest with hot summer and cold winter.

Answer: Tropical rainforest with wet and hot climates

What are the components of the ecosphere?.
(a). Biosphere and Troposphere.
(b). Biosphere, Atmosphere, Hydrosphere and Lithosphere.
(c). Biosphere, Troposphere and Hydrosphere.
(d).Biosphere, Troposphere and Hydrosphere.

Answer: Biosphere, Atmosphere, Hydrosphere and Lithosphere.

An infinitesimal air parcel rises slowly upwards in the atmosphere. In this context, which of the following statements is not correct. ?
(a). Heat change, dq is zero.
(b). Lapse rate has a negative numerical value.
(c). Temperature during ascent decreases
(d). Internal energy decreases.

Answer: Lapse rate has a negative numerical value.

A 10 m above the ground anemometer registers a wind speed of 0.5 m/s. The wind speed at an elevation of 160 m for a neutral atmosphere with wind profile exponent p = 0.25 will beA 10 m above the ground anemometer registers a wind speed of 0.5 m/s. The wind speed at an elevation of 160 m for a neutral atmosphere with wind profile exponent p = 0.25 will be.?
(a). ~ 1.8 m/s
(b).0.5 m/s
(c). 1 m/s
(d). 2.5 m/s

Answer: 1 m/s

Which of the following substances absorbs solar and planetary radiation the most effectively.?
(a). Suspended dust particles
(b).Black carbon particles
(c). Fly ash particles
(d).Ice particles

Answer: Black carbon particles

A sampling error of 2.5758, where the critical value of 2.5758 denotes the level of significance and the standard deviation is.?
(a). 5.0%
(b). 4.55%
(c). 2.7%
(d). 1.0%

Answer: 1.0%

What wavelength does the majority of terrestrial radiation emit at the earth’s average surface temperature.?
(a). ~ 8.08 m
(b). ~ 11.52 m
(c). ~ 10.06 m
(d). ~ 3.48 m

Answer: ~ 10.06 m

A thermal power plant generates heat at a rate of 12 mJ/kWh. How thermally efficient is it.?
(A). 30%
(B). 36%
(C). 30%
(D) 25%

Answer: 30%

In random samples of 64 boats out of a total 2400 boats, the mean number of defective boats is 3.2 with a sample standard deviation 0.8. The standard error of the mean is
(a). ~ 0.107
(b). ~ 0.97
(c). ~ 0.40
(d). ~ 0.097

Answer: ~ 0.097

The Government of India established the Compensatory Afforestation Fund (CAF) in the year.?
(a). 2002
(b). 2004
(d). 2008

Answer: 2004

The following techniques are the most economical for handling hospital-generated infectious waste.?
(a). Deep burial
(b). Autoclaving
(c). Incineration
(d). Fumigation

Answer: Autoclaving

Environmental Studies MCQs