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Comparison between Deductive Reasoning and Inductive Reasoning

Let me share with you a comparison between Deductive Reasoning and Inductive Reasoning.

 

Aspect       Deductive Reasoning      Inductive Reasoning
Introduction ·        Starts with a general theory or hypothesis and seeks specific observations or evidence to support it. ·        Begins with specific observations and uses them to develop a general theory or hypothesis.
Process ·        Start with a general premise.

·        Apply the premise to specific cases.

·        Draw a specific conclusion.

·        Collect specific observations or data.

·        Identify patterns or trends in the data.

·        Formulate a general hypothesis or theory.

Examples ·        All living organisms are made of cells.

·        If an organism is a mammal, it has a backbone.

·        Every bird can fly.

·        All observed organisms in a pond have gills.

Limitations  

·        Limited ability to discover new phenomena.

·        Generalizations may not apply to all cases.
Application in Biology ·        Confirming or refuting hypotheses about genetic inheritance. ·        Exploring patterns of behavior within a population.
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