Clinical Pathology past papers

By: Prof. Fazal Rehman Shamil

Guess Paper 1: Clinical Pathology Fall – 2020 Past Papers

University Name – Confidential

Time Allowed: 3 hours

Total Marks:    70, Passing Marks (35)

Q. No. 1a: Choose the correct option. (9 Marks)
1. Which of the following is an abnormal? Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) finding?
(a) A glucose level that is less than 50% of the plasma glucose level (b) A protein level of less than 0.5 g/l (c) A cell concentration of 0–5 cells/μl
2. Which of the following does not cause the CSF picture of “aseptic” meningitis?
(a) Bacterial meningitis (b)Viral meningitis (c) Drug-induced meningitis
3. The best liver function test is
(a) AST/ALT b. alkaline phosphatase c. Bilirubin d. INR
4. A predominantly following direct hyperbilirubinemia is present in all of the following causes of
jaundice, except:
a. Hemolysis b. Bile duct obstruction c. Drug-induced liver injury d. Primary biliary cirrhosis
5 K+ excretion is markedly influenced by:
a) Aldosterone (b) amount of Na+ delivered to tubules(c) rate of tubular secretion of H+
d) all of the above
6. Renal correction of acute hyperkalemia will result in:
a) Alkalosis (b) acidosis (c) increased secretion of HCO3 (d) increased secretion of H+
e) increased secretion of Na+
7. which of the following is not a symptom of hypokalemia?
a) ileus (b) constipation (c) muscle weakness (d) paralysis (e) seizures
8. What is seen earliest in an ECG of hyperkalemia?
a) Sine wave (b) Peak T wave (c) Flattened p wave (d) QRS widening e) AV dissociation
9. Which is not a potential complication of a massive blood transfusion?
a) Hyperkalemia (b) hyperkalemia (c) hypothermia d) Hypernatremia (e) coagulopathy

B. Mark TRUE either FALSE
1. Normal CSF protein is 20-45g/dl (T/F)
2. SAAG test is performed on pleural fluid. (T/F)
3. The creatinine test is done for diagnosis of kidney disease. (T/F)
4. Total protein-Globulin= Albumin. (T/F)
5. The normal range of chloride is 96-110mmol/l.(T/F)

Q2. What is mean by xanthochromia, Write down the procedure of CSF examination in clinical laboratory?
Q3. Write a detailed note principle, the procedure of serum creatinine estimation, and also discuss its pathological conditions. (14marks)
Q4. Write down the procedure of pleural fluid examination in the laboratory. (14marks)
Q5. Discuss the importance of serum electrolytes; also write down its measuring procedure. (14marks)
Q6. What is mean by jaundice, write down the principle, procedure and interpretation of ALT (14marks)
Q7. Write the principle, procedure, and interpretation of serum uric acid level. (14marks)
Q8. Discuss the collection and laboratory analysis of ascetic fluid in detail. (14marks)

Guess Paper 2: Clinical Pathology Spring – 2020 Past Papers

University Name – Confidential

Time Allowed: 3 hours

Total Marks:    70, Passing Marks (35)

Q1. Choose the correct option. (07)
i. In neonates, CSF protein concentration may be as high as
a. 2.7g/l b. 1.7g/l c. 1.7mg/l d. 3.7g/l
ii. The normal opening pressure of CSF in adults is
a. 50 to 100mmH2o b. 200 to 300mmH2o c. 90 to 180 mmH2o d. None of them
iii. Rivalta test is used for determination of ………………in serous fluid
a. Total protein estimation b. Albumin estimation c. Globulin estimation
d. Chloride estimation
iv. Protein level higher than 3.0g/dl in serous fluid suggest as
a. Inflammatory process b. Hemorrhagic process c. Hemorrhagic exudate
d. All of the above
v. Diacetyle monoxime (DAM) method is used for estimation of
a. Serum Creatinine estimation b. Blood urea estimation
c. Serum uric acid estimation d. Serum calcium estimation
vi. The normal range of 24 hours urine chloride is
a. 110-250 mmol/24h b. 110-250 mg/24h c. 98-108 mmol/24h d. 98-108mg/24 h
vii. Pre hepatic jaundice is due to
a. Obstruction of biliary passages
b. Destruction of red blood cells
c. Reduced handling of liver cell
d. All of the above
Mark true or false. (07 marks)
i. Pleural fluid / serum protein ratio < 0.5 will be considered exudates. (T/F).
ii. The most common type of endogenous crystals found in synovial fluid is monosodium urate monohydrate and calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate (T/F).
iii. Jaffe method for Creatinine estimation is endpoint assay (T/F)
iv. Ion-selective electrode (ISE) is a more sensitive and accurate method than flame photometry for serum electrolytes estimation (T/F)
v. Pleural fluid pH <7.30 is associated with empyema and malignant disorder(T/F)
vi. Pandy test is used for estimation of globulin in CSF (T/F)
vii. Indirect Bilirubin increased in hepatitis (T/F)
Q2. Discuss the method used for CSF collection. Write down procedure and calculation of Cell counting using Neubauer counting chamber, Enlist five pathological conditions in which CSF protein raised
(14 marks)
Q3. Describes the methods used for serum electrolytes determination and also write down its clinical
significance (14 marks)

Q4. Differentiate between hemolytic jaundice and obstructive jaundice. Write down the principle, requirements, method and clinical significance of serum alkaline phosphatase (14 marks)

Q5. Define pleural effusion and also discuss laboratory examination of pleural fluid in detail
(14 marks)

Q6. Enlist names of tests used for renal failure. Discuss the principle, requirement, and method used for
Creatinine clearance in detail (14 marks)

Q7. Write a short note of the following. (14 marks)
1. CSF formation and functions

2. Cytological and Microbiological examination of Ascetic fluid

Q8. Define the following terms

1. Centrifugation 2. Dilution factor calculation 3. Osteomalacia
4. Principle of the reaction of serum ALT 5. Neubauer counting chamber 6. Transudates 7. Exudates

Guess Paper 3: Clinical Pathology Fall – 2019 Past Papers

University Name – Confidential

Time Allowed: 3 hours

Total Marks:    70, Passing Marks (35)

Q. No. 1(a): Mark the following statements either as True or False. (7 Marks)
i. The bladder muscle (the detrusor muscle) is capable of distending to accept urine without increasing the pressure inside. True or False
ii. The cortex and the medulla are made up of nephrons. True or False
iii. Microbial and animal cells account for a large fraction of the total input of carbon to the soil.
True or False
iv. The presence of a range of soil organisms is essential for the maintenance of healthy productive soil. True or False
v. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi enhance host plant fitness by direct provisioning of mineral resources or by providing protection against other pests. True or False
vi. Biodegradation is the process by which organic substances are broken down by non-living organisms. True or False
vii. Microbial interactions may be parasitic, mutualistic, or commensal. True or False
(b): Choose the correct option. (7 Marks)
i. _________are strongly recommended for microbiological culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing because of the reduced incidence of cellular and microbial contamination.
a. Midstream Clean Catch Specimens
b. First Morning Specimen is specimen
c. Randomly Collected Specimen
d. All of the above
ii. Commonly used preservatives for 24-hour specimens are ……
a. hydrochloric acid
b. boric acid
c. acetic acid and toluene
d. All of the above
iii. The most common preservative used for culture and sensitivity is boric acid, which comes in,
a. tablet
b. powder
c. lyophilized form
d. All of the above
iv. Conversion of organic carbon substance to the inorganic form of carbon is called:
a. Mineralization
b. Digestion
c. Photosynthesis
d. None of the above
v. Bacteria are responsible for:
a. Nitrogen oxidation
b. Sulfur oxidation
c. Nitrogen fixation
d. All of these

vi. Nitrogen fixation refers to the direct conversion of atmospheric nitrogen gas into:
a. Ammonia
b. Glucose
c. ATP
d. Nitrate
vii. Microbial ecology is ——.
e. The study of practical uses of microbes in industry
f. The study of microorganisms in the laboratory
g. The study of microbes in their natural habitat
h. The release of genetically recombined microbes

Q.2 Define Culture media, discuss its various types and microbiological applications. (14 Marks)

Q. 3 write down the procedure of total bilirubin estimation, its normal ranges, and physiological and pathological conditions. (14 Marks)

Q. 4 write down the procedure of semen analysis, also discuss its collection procedure in detail. (14 Marks)

Q.5 write down principal, procedure, and clinical interpretation of semen protein estimation. (14 Marks)

Q.6 How protozoan cyst/ protozoan and helemethic ova detected in a stool sample, also discuss stool concentration techniques. (14 Marks)

Q.7 Describe the anatomy and physiology of upper and lower urinary tracts. (14 Marks)

Q.8 Write short notes on any two of the following: (14 Marks)

a) Causes of aciduria and alkalineruia.
b) Causes of proteinuria and ketoacidosis.
c) Causes of Myoglobinuria.

Guess Paper 4: Clinical Pathology Spring – 2019 Past Papers

University Name – Confidential

Time Allowed: 3 hours

Total Marks:    70, Passing Marks (35)

Q1. (a): Mark the following statements either as True or False. (7 Marks)
a. A kidney stone, also known as a renal calculus or nephrolith.True or False
b. The cortex and the medulla are made up ofnephrons. True or False
c. 85% of urinary calculi are Ca, mainly Ca oxalate, 10% are uric acid; 2% are cystine; and most of the remainder are Mg ammonium phosphate (struvite). True or False
d. There are two major types of growth media.. True or False
e. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi enhance host plant fitness by direct provisioning of mineral resources or by providing protection against other pests. True or False
f. Biodegradation is the process by which organic substances are broken down by non-living organisms. True or False
g. Microbial interactions may be parasitic, mutualistic, or commensal. True or False

(b): Choose the correct option. (7 Marks)
i. _________are strongly recommended for microbiological culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing because of the reduced incidence of cellular and microbial contamination.
a. Midstream Clean Catch Specimens b. First Morning Specimen is the specimen
c. Randomly Collected Specimens d. All of the above
ii. Commonly used preservatives for 24 hour specimens are ……
a. Hydrochloric acid b. Boric acid c. Acetic acid and toluene d. All of the above
iii. The most common preservative used for culture and sensitivity is boric acid, which comes in,
a. tablet b. powder c. lyophilized form d. All of the above
iv. Conversion of organic carbon substance to inorganic form of carbon is called:
a. Mineralization b. Digestion c. Photosynthesis d. None of the above
v. Bacteria are responsible for:
a. Nitrogen oxidation b. Sulfur oxidation c. Nitrogen fixation d. All of these
vi. Nitrogen fixation refers to the direct conversion of atmospheric nitrogen gas into:
a. Ammonia b. Glucose c. ATP d. Nitrate
vii. Microbial ecology is ——.
a. The study of practical uses of microbes in industry
b. The study of microorganisms in the laboratory
c. The study of microbes in their natural habitat
d. The release of genetically recombined microbes

Q.2 Define Culture media, discuss its various types and microbiological applications. (14 Marks)

Q. 3 Write down the procedure of total RBCs estimation, its normal ranges and physiological and pathological conditions. (14 Marks)

Q. 4 What are urinary calculi, write down their pathophysiology, sign and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment
And prevention. (14 Marks)

Q.5 Write down principal, procedure, and clinical interpretation of semen protein estimation. (14 Marks)

Q.6 Write down physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of stool, also write a pathological interpretation of stool. (14 Marks)

Q.7 Describe the anatomy and physiology of upper and lower urinary tracts. (14 Marks)

Q.8 Write short notes on any two of the following: (14 Marks)

a) Causes of aciduria and alkalineruia.
b) Causes of proteinuria and ketoacidosis.
c) Causes of Myoglobinuria.

Guess Paper 5: Clinical Pathology Spring – 2018 Past Papers

University Name – Confidential

Time Allowed: 3 hours

Total Marks:    70, Passing Marks (35)

Q.1: Choose the correct one. (14)
i. (CSF) is a clear, colorless with high protein content and few cells (True / False)
ii. Normal CSF contains 0-5 mononuclear cells. (True / False)
iii. CSF analysis can be used to diagnose certain Blood disorders. (True / False)
iv. CSF is formed and secreted by the choroid plexus. (True / False)
v. Normally CSF contain is about 1/3 of blood glucose (True / False)
vi. Normally a few red blood cells are present in the CSF (True / False)
vii. BUN provides a rough measurement of the glomerular filtration rate (True / False)
viii. A lowlevel of creatinine suggests a kidney problem.. (True / False)
ix. The normal range for ALT is 50-100 units per liter (U/L). (True / False)
x. The normal range for AST is 8–48 U/L. (True / False)
xi. AST stands for _________________________________________.
xii. ALT stands for _________________________________________.
xiii. BUN and serum creatinine tests require _____________________ samples taken in a lab
xiv. Creatinine clearance rate determines how efficiently the kidneys are clearing ________________

Q.2: Write down a detail and comprehensiveAlbumin and Bilirubin test?also discuss its procedure, precaution and result interpretations(14)
Q.3: Discuss Serum creatinine test, Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and Estimated GFR in detail? (14)
Q.4: What is the Broth culture of CSF ? also write a detailed note on the microscopic examination of CSF? (14)
Q.5: Briefly Discuss treatment, Prevention, and risk factors of electrolyte disorders? (14)
Q.6: Write a brief note on “Analysis of Ascetic Fluid for Cytological and Biochemical Findings”. (14)
Q.7: What are electrolyte disorders? Also discuss Symptoms, Causes, Types, and Diagnosis of electrolyte disorders? (14)

Prof. Fazal Rehman Shamil