**What is reasoning?**

The reasoning is logical thinking about some facts. Mostly reasoning produces conclusions about the facts.

**Types of reasoning**

- Deductive reasoning
- Inductive reasoning

**What is deductive reasoning?**

Deductive reasoning means to reach a logical conclusion from one or more statements.

If A=B and B=C, then we can say that A=C

Deductive reasoning starts from general evidence and creates a hypothesis. forms a conclusion after testing the hypothesis, a firm conclusion is created.

### The approach of deductive reasoning

There are four stages of the approach in deductive reasoning:

- Start with existing theory (made in induction process)
- Create a hypothesis based on the theory
- Test the hypothesis by gathering data
- Analyze data to see whether the hypothesis supports or rejects the theory.

### Characteristics of deduction reasoning

- Deductive reasoning starts from general theory and reaches a logical conclusion.
- Deductive reasoning is also called the top-down approach as it begins with a theory, makes and tests a hypothesis, and reaches a conclusion with logic.
- If the evidence is true, the result should also be true.

**Examples of deductive reasoning**

**Example 1:**

**Theory**

All students are lazy.

**Hypothesis**

All students in my class are lazy.

**Test hypothesis:**

Observe all students in my class.

**Conclusion**

Five out of twenty students are lazy. (Reject hypothesis)

**Example 2:**

**Statement 1:** Teacher teaches the student

**Statement 2:** Sameed is a teacher and Amir is a student

**Deductive reasoning:** Smeed teaches the Amir

**Example 3:**

**Statement 1:** If the exam is in this week, then he will study day and night (Hypothesis)

**Statement 2:** This is a week of the exam (Observation)

**Deductive reasoning:** This is a week of the exam, so he will study day and night (Confirmation)

**What is inductive reasoning?**

Inductive reasoning is from seen cases to unseen cases. Seen cases provide historical data and with the help of this historical data, we generate some results that can be true or false.

Inductive reasoning collects data and makes a theory however in induction reasoning, you are not sure whether the theory is correct or not. In this logical thinking process, you make observations and draw a conclusion to make the theory.

**The approach of inductive reasoning**

The approach of inductive reasoning comprises three stages:

- Observation
- Observe a pattern
- Develop a theory

**Characteristics of induction reasoning**

- Inductive reasoning starts from a particular observation and makes a general conclusion.
- It is also called a bottom approach as it goes through observation, creates a hypothesis, and then concludes.
- No matter if the evidence is true. The conclusion may be incorrect or wrong.

**Example of inductive reasoning**

**Example 1:**

**Observation**

Students in my class are lazy.

**Observe a pattern**

All observed students are lazy.

**Theory**

All students are lazy.

**Example 2:**

**Statement 1:** In the previous semester, I daily study for one hour and I got the A grade. Now I am in the new semester and if I study daily for one hour then I will get the grade A (Seen case to unseen case).

**Statement 2:** Yesterday, I purchase this mobile phone in just 200 US dollars, so when I will visit the market today, I can purchase the same mobile phone in 200 US dollars (Seen case to unseen case).

**Statement 3: **Shahzeb is a football player and his weight is 70 KG in the previous years 2016. Now in 2017, his weight should also be 70 KG(Seen case to unseen case).

**You must also know the following topics**

Deductive reasoning examples | deductive reasoning definition | inductive reasoning definition | difference between inductive and deductive reasoning pdf | similarities between inductive and deductive reasoning | inductive reasoning examples in everyday life | inductive vs deductive argument | inductive vs deductive research.

**You must also know the following topics**

Deductive reasoning examples | deductive reasoning definition | inductive reasoning definition

| difference between inductive and deductive reasoning pdf | similarities between inductive and deductive reasoning | inductive reasoning examples in everyday life | inductive vs deductive argument | inductive vs deductive research.