Transforming Your Images with Cutting-Edge Technology of CapCut’s Upscale Image Tool

Transforming Your Images with Cutting-Edge Technology of CapCut’s Upscale Image Tool

The demand for high-quality visuals is paramount in digital content creation. Whether you’re a professional photographer, a content creator, or a social media enthusiast, pursuing crisp, detailed images is a universal goal. CapCut, a leading video editing and content creation player, has stepped up to the challenge with its innovative Upscale Image Tool. This cutting-edge technology has redefined how we approach image enhancement, promising to transform your visuals into works of art. This article will delve into the capabilities, features, and best practices for utilizing CapCut’s Upscale Image Tool to its fullest potential. If you want the best and most free YouTube editor tool, click the link.

Understanding the Upscale Image Tool

CapCut’s Upscale Image Tool is a powerful feature designed to enhance the resolution and quality of your images. It leverages advanced algorithms and artificial intelligence to analyze and extrapolate pixel information, resulting in images that are not only larger but also sharper and more detailed. This technology goes beyond traditional upscaling methods, ensuring enhanced images retain their natural look while significantly improving overall quality.

Key Features of CapCut’s Upscale Image Tool

  • AI-Powered Upscaling

The heart of CapCut’s technology lies in its artificial intelligence algorithms. These algorithms are trained to understand image patterns and intelligently predict missing pixel information, effectively enlarging the image without sacrificing quality.

  • Preservation of Details

One of the standout features of CapCut’s Upscale Image Tool is its ability to preserve intricate details during the upscaling process. This ensures that the enhanced images look larger and maintain the nuances and subtleties of the original.

  • User-Friendly Interface

CapCut is known for its intuitive interfaces, and the Upscale Image Tool is no exception. With a user-friendly design, creators can easily navigate the tool’s settings, making the image enhancement process accessible to users of all skill levels.

  • Customization Options

To cater to a diverse range of creative needs, CapCut’s Upscale Image Tool offers customization options. Users can adjust parameters such as sharpness, contrast, and saturation to fine-tune the enhanced image according to their preferences.

  • Batch Processing

CapCut’s tool supports batch processing for those working on large-scale projects, allowing users to upscale multiple images simultaneously. This feature streamlines workflows, saving time and effort in the editing process.

How to Use CapCut’s Upscale Image Tool

Now that we’ve explored the features of CapCut’s Upscale Image Tool, let’s walk through the step-by-step process of transforming your images:

  • Step 1: Import Your Image

Begin by opening CapCut and importing the image you want to enhance. The Upscale Image feature is typically located in the editing or enhancement section of the tool.

  • Step 2: Choose the Upscaling Settings

CapCut provides users with various upscaling options. Select the desired settings based on your preferences and the nature of your image. Consider factors such as the level of detail in the original image and the intended use of the enhanced version.

  • Step 3: Customize as Needed

Take advantage of the customization options available. Adjust parameters such as sharpness, contrast, and saturation to achieve the desired look for your enhanced image. This step allows for creative control over the final result.

  • Step 4: Preview and Fine-Tune

Before finalizing the process, preview the enhanced image to ensure it meets your expectations. CapCut’s real-time preview feature lets you make on-the-fly adjustments, ensuring that the final output aligns with your vision.

  • Step 5: Save and Export

Once satisfied with the results, save your enhanced image. CapCut supports various file formats, ensuring compatibility with different platforms and applications. This step completes the transformation process, leaving you with a high-quality, visually striking image.

Best Practices for Optimal Results

While CapCut’s upscale image tool is designed to be user-friendly, adhering to best practices can further enhance your overall experience and the quality of your images:

  • Start with High-Quality Images

The effectiveness of upscaling is maximized when starting with images with a reasonable level of detail. High-resolution source images provide a solid foundation for the upscaling process.

  • Experiment with Customization Options

Don’t hesitate to explore the customization options available. Adjusting settings such as sharpness and contrast allows you to tailor the enhanced image to your specific preferences and creative vision.

  • Consider the Purpose of the Image

Different use cases may require different upscaling approaches. For example, images intended for print may benefit from specific settings, while those destined for online platforms may require a different optimization strategy.

  • Balance Enhancement

While the goal is to enhance the image, striking a balance and avoiding over-processing is crucial. Aim for a natural and realistic look to ensure the enhanced image remains visually pleasing and true to the original.

  • Explore Batch Processing for Efficiency

If you’re working on a project with multiple images, use CapCut’s batch-processing feature. This saves time and ensures consistency across a series of enhanced images.

Real-World Applications

CapCut’s Upscale Image Tool finds application across a spectrum of creative endeavors. Photographers can use the tool to enhance the resolution and detail of their images, providing clients with high-quality prints and digital files. Also, designers working on visuals for marketing materials, websites, or social media can use the tool to create eye-catching and detailed graphics. In situations where higher resolution is needed for archival purposes, such as preserving historical photographs, CapCut’s Upscale Image Tool can be a valuable asset.

Conclusion: Enhancing Your Image Glow

CapCut’s Upscale Image Tool is a testament to cutting-edge technology’s transformative power in image enhancement. By seamlessly combining artificial intelligence with user-friendly design, CapCut empowers creators to elevate their visuals easily. Whether you’re a professional needing high-quality prints or a content creator striving for a visually stunning online presence, this tool provides a versatile solution. As we continue to witness advancements in image processing technology, CapCut’s commitment to innovation positions its Upscale Image Tool as a go-to resource for those seeking to push the boundaries of visual creativity. As you transform images, let CapCut be your trusted companion, unlocking new dimensions of detail and clarity in every pixel.

What is Critical Values in Statistical Analysis? Explained with Examples

What is Critical Values in Statistical Analysis? Explained with Examples

In the field of statistics, critical value plays a vital role in hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, and other statistical analyses. It is a threshold or cut-off point that helps determine the statistical significance of test results. This article aims to provide a detailed overview of critical value, its importance, calculation methods, and applications in statistical analysis.

In this article, we will discuss the definition of critical value, Calculation Methods, Challenges, and Considerations in Interpreting Critical Values, Advancements, and Recent Developments in Critical Value Analysis also critical value will be explained with the help of examples.

Critical Value

In statistical hypothesis testing, a critical value represents a specific point on the test distribution, beyond which the null hypothesis is rejected. It is determined based on the desired level of significance (alpha level) and the chosen statistical test.

Machine learning techniques, such as support vector machines, random forests, and deep learning, have been applied to critical value analysis. These methods can handle complex relationships and high-dimensional data, providing more accurate critical values in various applications.

Methods for Critical Values

  • Z-Score Method:
  • T-Distribution Method:
  • Chi-Square Distribution Method:
  • F-Distribution Method:
  • Bootstrap Method:
  • Z-Score Method:

The Z-Score method calculates critical values by locating the corresponding z-score in the standard normal distribution table.

  • T-Distribution Method:

The T-Distribution method calculates critical values by referring to the t-distribution table based on the degrees of freedom and the desired significance level.

  • Chi-Square Distribution Method:

The Chi-Square Distribution method determines critical values by consulting the chi-square distribution table based on the degrees of freedom and the desired level of significance.

  • F-Distribution Method:

The F-Distribution approach determines critical values by consulting the F-distribution table based on the numerator and denominator’s degrees of freedom and the desired level of significance.

  • Bootstrap Method:

The Bootstrap Method estimates critical values and confidence intervals by repeatedly resampling the data with replacement and calculating relevant metrics empirically.

Challenges and Considerations in Interpreting Critical Values

Interpreting critical values in statistical analysis involves several challenges and considerations that researchers should be aware of.

Assumptions about Data Distribution: Critical values are often derived based on specific assumptions about the underlying data distribution. It is important to ensure that these assumptions are met to ensure the validity of the critical value interpretation. Deviations from the assumed distribution can lead to incorrect conclusions.

  • Type I and Type II Errors: Critical values play a role in controlling the risks of Type I (false positive) and Type II (false negative) errors. However, it is essential to understand that setting a lower significance level to reduce Type I errors may increase the chances of Type II errors, and vice versa. Balancing these errors is crucial for accurate interpretation.
  • Sample Size: The sample size used in the analysis can impact critical value interpretation. Smaller sample sizes may lead to wider confidence intervals and higher critical values, making it more difficult to detect significant effects. Conversely, larger sample sizes may result in narrower confidence intervals and lower critical values, increasing the sensitivity to detecting significant effects.
  • Context and Limitations of the Statistical Test: Different statistical tests have varying critical value interpretations. It is important to consider the specific test being used, its assumptions, and its limitations. Understanding the test’s appropriateness for the research question and its potential drawbacks is crucial for the accurate interpretation of critical values.
  • Outliers and Influential Observations: Outliers or influential observations can impact the estimated parameters and the resulting critical values. These data points may have a disproportionate influence on the analysis, leading to biased interpretations. It is important to investigate and address the presence of outliers before relying solely on critical value interpretations.
  • Multiple Comparisons: When conducting multiple statistical tests simultaneously, such as in the case of multiple hypothesis testing or post-hoc analyses, the issue of multiple comparisons arises. Adjustments to the critical values (e.g., Bonferroni correction) may be necessary to account for the increased probability of Type I errors.
  • Interpretation within the Context of the Research Question: Critical values should be interpreted in light of the specific research question and the practical significance of the findings. While a result may be statistically significant based on the critical value, its practical relevance and impact should be carefully considered.
  • Reproducibility and Replicability: Critical value interpretations should be reproducible and replicable. Providing transparent documentation of the statistical methods used, including the determination of critical values, facilitates the replication of the analysis and strengthens the reliability of the results.

Advancements and Recent Developments in Critical Value Analysis

Advancements and recent developments in critical value analysis have focused on improving accuracy, flexibility, and efficiency in statistical inference. Some notable advancements include:

  • Robust Methods:

Robust statistical methods have emerged to address violations of distributional assumptions and handle outliers or influential observations. These methods aim to provide more reliable critical values that are less affected by extreme data points.

  • Bayesian Approaches:

Bayesian statistics has seen advancements in critical value analysis, particularly through the use of Bayesian hypothesis testing and model comparison. Bayesian methods provide a different perspective on critical values by incorporating prior knowledge, resulting in posterior probabilities that can guide decision-making.

  • Software Tools and Packages:

The availability of user-friendly software tools and packages has significantly contributed to the accessibility and implementation of critical value analysis. These tools offer automated procedures for calculating critical values across various statistical tests, making it easier for researchers to obtain accurate results.

How to find the critical value?

Example 1:

Find the right-tailed z-test’s critical value when α = 0.025.


Given data is

Right-tailed z test=?

where α= 0.025.

Step 1:

Look up the cumulative probability (area) in the right tail of the standard normal distribution table for α = 0.025.

The region to the right of the critical value corresponds to the cumulative probability of 0.025 in the right tail. From the standard normal distribution table, the z-score corresponding to a cumulative probability of 0.025 is approximately 1.96.

Step 2:

The critical value for the right-tailed z-test is the positive z-score obtained in Step 1.

That’s why the critical value for a right-tailed z-test with α = 0.025 is 1.96.

A z critical value calculator can also be used to find the critical values of z distribution for one-tailed or two-tailed Probability.

Example 2:

Let a one-tailed t-test is being conducted on data with a sample size of 10 at

α= 0.025. Critical value?.


The t-score matching the desired significance level must be identified to obtain the critical value for a one-tailed t-test with = 0.025 and a sample size of 10.

Step 1:

First of all, find the df for the t-distribution.

In this case, the sample size is 10, so the degrees of freedom will be df = 10 – 1 = 9.

Step 2:

Search the t-distribution table for the critical value for a one-tailed t-test with α = 0.025 and the associated degrees of freedom (df = 9).

The distribution table’s critical value for a one-tailed t-test with α = 0.025 and df = 9 is roughly 2.821.

Since there are 10 samples, the critical value for a one-tailed t-test with α = 0.025 is 2.821.


In this article, we have discussed the definition of critical value, Challenges, Considerations in Interpreting Critical Values, Calculation Methods, Advancements, and Recent Developments in Critical Value Analysis also critical value will be explained with the help of examples. After briefly studying this Article, anyone can explain this topic easily.




The Software Development Life Cycle: An Overview of the Process

The Software Development Life Cycle: An Overview of the Process

Comprehending the complexities of software development is imperative for individuals seeking to build or invest in digital technology. The SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle) is a vital aspect of this undertaking, comprising a structured methodology for designing, developing, verifying, and launching software. The SDLC is a comprehensive framework designed to ensure that software is efficient, effective, and high quality.


Introduction to SDLC

SDLC is a detailed plan that describes how to develop, maintain, and replace specific software. The purpose of the SDLC is to accurately plan and control the development of an information system. The cycle includes several stages, each with distinct tasks and deliverables.

Stages of the Software Development Life Cycle

  1. Requirement Gathering and Analysis: The first step of the SDLC is to collect detailed and accurate requirements from clients, stakeholders, or end-users. These needs are then analyzed for their validity and feasibility.


  1. Design: After requirements are thoroughly analyzed and validated, the process moves into the design phase. System designers create a design plan, which includes hardware and software requirements, system specifications, and system architecture.


  1. Implementation/Coding: Once the design specifications are complete, the coding phase begins. This is where the software is actually built by programmers using the design document as their guide. The code is written in a suitable programming language based on the design requirements.


  1. Testing: During this stage, the created program undergoes various tests to verify its compliance with the designated criteria or requirements and doesn’t have any glitches. This is a crucial step to ensure the software’s performance and functionality.


  1. Deployment: After successful testing, the software product is deployed to the customer for their use. Depending on the feedback, necessary changes or enhancements are made.


  1. Maintenance: Once the software is deployed and is being used, regular maintenance is required. This can include modifying the system for different environments, improving performance, or correcting software bugs.


Importance of SDLC


The SDLC is invaluable for guiding the software development process. It provides a structured framework, ensuring all critical aspects of software development are addressed. This can lead to the development of software that is more reliable, efficient, and robust.


Additionally, the SDLC improves resource management and enhances project predictability. With clear stages, deliverables, and feedback loops, project managers can better plan and control the software development process. This approach ensures that problems are identified and addressed early in the development cycle, reducing the cost and complexity of changes.


However, for anyone looking to delve deeper into the process of SDLC, having strong foundational knowledge is essential. One can achieve this through various Software Engineering Courses that are designed to provide in-depth knowledge about all the stages of SDLC, including requirement gathering, system design, coding, testing, deployment, and maintenance. These courses can equip students and professionals with the necessary skills to handle complex software development projects effectively.


Adapting SDLC Models to Specific Needs


Organizations have a variety of SDLC models to choose from, depending on their specific requirements and resources. These models include Waterfall, Agile, Spiral, and others, each with unique strengths and weaknesses, making them suitable for different types of projects. The Waterfall model, for instance, is a linear approach where each phase of the SDLC must be completed before the next one begins. In contrast, the Agile model is more flexible and allows for changes and updates throughout the development process.


Choosing the right SDLC model can have a significant impact on the project’s success. Therefore, it’s necessary to assess the project requirements, timeline, risks, and resources before selecting an appropriate model.


However, with the continuous evolution of software development practices, there’s a growing need to go beyond traditional SDLC models. The complexities of modern software projects require advanced methodologies that can accommodate changing requirements and ensure the timely and efficient delivery of high-quality software. This is where Advanced Software Engineering comes into play. The software development process is streamlined, and the quality of the end product is enhanced through the use of advanced techniques and methodologies like DevOps and Continuous Integration/Continuous Deployment (CI/CD).


The Future of SDLC


As we gaze ahead, the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is expected to persistently transform in accordance with technological progress and shifting commercial requirements. The software development sphere is already undergoing a transformation due to the emergence of cutting-edge technologies like Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), and cloud computing. In the future, we can expect these technologies to be integrated more deeply into the SDLC, driving efficiencies and innovations.


Moreover, as data-based decision-making gains prominence, there is expected to be an increased focus on analytics within the software development life cycle (SDLC). This could involve using data analytics tools during the requirement gathering and testing stages to better understand user behavior and identify potential issues. Additionally, predictive analytics could be used to forecast project outcomes and make more informed decisions throughout the development process.



The Software Development Life Cycle is a well-established procedure that directs the development of high-quality software. With its structured phases and iterative feedback loops, it provides a roadmap for planning, building, and maintaining software applications. By understanding the SDLC, professionals in the software industry can ensure their projects are well-managed and successful.


Furthermore, it is crucial to consistently enhance your understanding and expertise to remain in sync with the advancing world of software engineering. Whether through basic Software Engineering Courses or Advanced Software Engineering, continuous learning can equip you with the tools to effectively navigate the complexities of modern software development and deliver exceptional results.


From its inception to the maintenance phase, every step in the SDLC holds significance. With the software industry advancing at a rapid pace, understanding and implementing SDLC in its most efficient form has never been more crucial. After all, a well-structured and efficient SDLC can differentiate a successful software project and a failed one.


Author Bio

Nisha Nemasing Rathod works as a Technical Content Writer at Great Learning, where she focuses on writing about cutting-edge technologies like Cybersecurity, Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Data Science, and Cloud Computing. She holds a B.Tech Degree in Computer Science and Engineering and is knowledgeable about various programming languages. She is a lifelong learner, eager to explore new technologies and enhance her writing skills.

Can The Use Of Local ‘Slang’ Terms Help Improve Your SEO?

Local SEO can be one of the best ways for small businesses to see big results, fast. The rise of online shopping and the increase in time spent on the internet has led to a massive shift in marketing all over the world. You have to be where your customers are, and that is online. This does not, however, mean that you should give up on your local customers, and that’s where local SEO comes in.

If you are wondering how use of local slang terms can help improve your SEO and help your business, this article is for you.


What is local SEO?


To begin with, let’s take a quick look at what we mean by local SEO. SEO, or Search Engine Optimisation, is the process by which you aim to raise your position in the search engine results pages. With local SEO, you are focusing your attention on local searches, hoping to increase traffic and gain leads and customers near you.

While many products and services can be delivered far afield, all the best Online Marketing Gurus will tell you to ignore local SEO at your peril. Almost half of searches on Google have local intent, and the vast majority of that number will make a purchase that day based on their local search. This is definitely not a strategy to miss out on.


What do we mean by local ‘slang’ terms in SEO?


One of the most important aspects of local SEO is researching local keywords. In general, this involves using your business name or product and location. This ensures that those in your area can see you if they search for your business, product or services.

The keywords that you use can have a huge impact on where you show up in the results pages. For instance, a search of plumbing companies in Singapore could have your business on page 5, while plumbing companies with more targeted service areas could see you in the top few results.

You can measure the efficacy of certain words and use similar choices to try and hit a niche of high-volume searches with less competition, but this can be tricky. Using local slang can help with this. If there is a specific term or terms that are used locally and searched for, opting to use the same term over a synonym could help boost your ranking.

Further, it can have a more serious impact on your brand voice and identity. Using the term ‘thongs’ to describe flip-flops indicates an Australian company, while talking about your biscuits best being enjoyed with a ‘cuppa’ might show your business and slang is from the UK.

This can make your customers feel more at home, more relaxed and give the impression that you are trustworthy and, indeed, local to them.

So, how can local slang terms improve your SEO?

While not necessarily suitable in more formal situations, using slang terms can indeed improve your local SEO in many ways. It can:

Sound more conversational in an email or marketing campaign
Indicate a level of intimacy with potential buyers
Clarify your brand voice
Encourage a relaxed exchange
Set you apart from your competition

For all these and other reasons, why not check and see what impact adding local slang into your SEO could have on your marketing strategies today?


Nine Essential Book Formatting Tips to Make Your Book More Readable

Every writer understands the importance of making good first impressions. Every writer spends a hefty amount of time and immeasurable effort in making their book worth the reader’s time. But creating an impression is not just about the words you write. It also concerns how you present them.

Of course, all of your effort can be undermined if your pages look gawky or amateur. It is because the readers are likely to flip through the pages of your book before deciding whether or not your hard work is worth their time.

There is no doubt that every writer spends a lot of time on writing, editing, and finalizing their books. They want every potential reader to be able to find their work interesting and worth their time and money. It all starts with how your book looks.

Here are a few essential formatting tips that can increase the readability of your book.

  • Go Easy on the Margins

Page margins are one of the easy yet hard to master aspects of book formatting. Many writers, especially first time publishers are unable to determine the right margins. One of the reasons for this is that most writers want to get as much as possible on one page to reduce the number of pages.

Your efforts may be focused towards not overwhelming the reader with a lot of pages. However, it is easy to forget that cramped up and cluttered text can also intimidate the reader. Therefore, it is best to go easy on your margins to make your book more inviting for the readers.

  • Follow the Title Capitalization Rules

The title capitalization rules can vary for each style guide. The title capitalization rules can be confusing for many writers but it’s not as complicated as you might think. You can start your journey to excel at title capitalization by following the standard rules.

Most style guidelines emphasize on capitalizing all proper nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Hence, this is a great beginning for you. You can also ask your editor to help you with ensuring right capitalization throughout your work.

  • Use Readable Fonts

While first glances are important, they are not the only thing you should concern yourself with. Yes, you can make a great first impression with a fancy font but it may not be easy on the eyes once the reader decides to give your work a read.

Therefore, it is best to choose a readable font that can be comfortable in the eyes of the reader. This practice ensures that your reader is indulged in the contents of the book rather than spending time on deciphering each alphabet of a fancy font.

  • Choose the Right Color

It may sound like an obvious rule but it is important for every writer to ensure the reader’s comfort and readability. According to the industry standard, the best color option is to use black text color on white pages. It is effective and easy to print.

You can use other color options while typing and editing to give some comfort to your eyes. However, make sure to change everything according to industry standards while sharing drafts to your agents.

  • Pick the Right Font Size

The font size in your book plays an important role in increasing the readability of your book. It is important to just get it right and ensure that it’s neither too big nor too small. Big font may undermine the seriousness of your book and smaller font size can trigger headaches among the readers.

While many accomplished writers choose size 10-11, it is not a hard and fast rule to follow. You can play with the point type to ensure the readability of your book. An ideal test to see the readability of your book is by ensuring that there are no more than 12-15 words in every line.

  • Justify the Text

Every writer understands the importance of visual aesthetics for the reader. They are not limited to your book cover only. You must also make the text inside your book look balanced. Therefore, it’s important to justify your text so that it has balanced margins on both sides.

Justifying your text can put your text in a nice and pleasing rectangle and ensure that each line has the same length. This way, you will not have to worry about the reader being distracted by the unevenness of your text and the broken flow.

  • Indent the Beginning

Readers are often intimidated by long paragraphs and lack of flow. They want to spend their time on something that gives rest to their eyes and also fills their knack of reading. Hence, it is important to give surety to your reader at first glance.

An ideal way to do so is ensuring that the first line of each paragraph of your book is indented. Most writers prefer a quarter-inch indent to mark the beginning of a new paragraph and ensure the reader that their eyes will get the valid breaks throughout.

  • Distinguish Your Chapters

Many books are made up of different chapters that can help you give the needed pauses and breaks in the story line. Books can have several chapters and they may be different from others. It is best to make this clear to your reader.

It is best to ensure that every chapter starts on a new page. It is ideal to start each chapter on the right side of the book but it’s not necessary, except for the first chapter. You can also use different styles and font sizes to make the beginning of a new chapter for your book.

  • Make Use of Blank Lines

Every scene break is not supposed to be the beginning of a new chapter. Writers often have to change scenes in the middle of chapters. The use of a blank line between the paragraphs is the easiest way of indicating these changes.

This marker indicates to the reader that the scene has changed and they can be mentally prepared to understand the new perspective. You can also consider making the break wider with spaces above and below to ensure that the reader is ready for a new turn.

Top 5 Fitness Watches to Buy in 2023

Looking to up your fitness game? Or trying to monitor your health? Fitness trackers and smartwatches are here to help you stay on top of things. Counting your steps, monitoring your heart rate and stress, and tracking your sleep are just some of the things you can do with these watches. You also get a ton of exercise and workout options designed to track your fitness routine in every activity.

The increasing popularity of smartwatches has compelled smartphone companies to put out better watches along with smartphones. Now, there’s no shortage of options in the market, and finding the right one to suit your needs can be challenging. However, we’ve rounded up 5 of the best smartwatches and fitness trackers that you can buy in 2023.

Coincidentally, none of the smartwatches, except the Apple Watch, in this list support 4G, and Wi-Fi and Bluetooth are the only connectivity options. So, you’ll need a good internet connection for your phone and the watch like Quantum Fiber with speeds of up to 8Gbps depending on where you live. Let’s dive into the list.

Garmin Fenix 7

There’s a reason why Garmin is the go-to brand for professional athletes and advanced users. Their precise GPS tracking, good displays, and ability to withstand harsh conditions are unparalleled. The Fenix 7 comes with a built-in GPS and Wi-Fi/Bluetooth connectivity options. The GPS isn’t run-of-the-mill GPS that relies on your phone to get a lock on your location. The watch directly connects to satellites and offers very accurate location tracking.

The watch is the first in the Fenix line to offer a touchscreen. However, the touchscreen locks itself as soon as you start your workout to prevent accidental touches. You can bypass this by pressing a button.

Garmin has also added a lot of free maps in their store that you can load onto the new map manager and save for later. You also get a ton of workout modes for multiple sports including running, swimming, cycling, golf, etc. The advanced features of Fenix 7 make it ideal if you’re looking to buy the absolute best watch in the fitness world.

Fitbit Charge 5

If chunky smartwatches aren’t your thing, you can take a look at Fitbit Charge 5. It’s the latest addition to Fitbit’s portfolio and offers a great bang for your buck without compromising on any of the essential features. It also has an ECG heart rate monitor, which is fairly accurate. You shouldn’t use it in place of medical-grade ECG equipment, but it gives you a pretty good idea.

It also comes with an upgraded touchscreen with an always-on display. There’s another feature called, ‘Daily Readiness Score,’ that takes into account your sleep, heart rate variability, and fatigue (related to previous activity).  The tracker comes in vibrant colors with interchangeable straps.

Garmin Vivoactive 4S

It’s the best all-rounder smartwatch by Garmin where you get most of the useful features with plenty of style and practicality. Coming in at just 12.7mm thickness, it’s lightweight and comfortable to wear. The in-built GPS is quite accurate and records your track precisely, unlike other watches which smooth out the edges. You also get the usual workout modes, sleep tracking, blood oxygen monitors, and more. You also get water resistance of up to 5ATM.

Amazfit Band 5

Amazfit Band 5 is the most affordable fitness tracker on this list. While you don’t get the full smartwatch functionality, the most useful features are there. You get sleep tracking, stress monitoring, heart rate tracker, blood oxygen monitor, and more.

Moreover, the display is beautifully around the edges and the bezels are round. Battery life is another area where the Band 5 excels and you can get up to 15 days of battery life on moderate usage. If you turn on all the options, then this will reduce. Overall, it offers an excellent value proposition.

Apple Watch Series 8

This one is dedicated to iOS users. The Series 8 watch is strikingly similar to Apple Watch 7, but it comes with a few under-the-hood improvements. They’ve added a temperature sensor and it can also track menstrual cycles. It has 14 quick-start workout modes for different exercises and activities. Moreover, the watch can now detect when you hop on your bicycle and automatically triggers a workout. There’s a mode that differentiates electric bikes from regular ones as electric bikes require less exertion.

It’s not as advanced as the Watch Ultra, but it’s fairly adequate for most users’ needs. Most of the Watch Ultra’s features are here on the Watch 8 sans the siren.


This concludes our list of the top 5 fitness watches that you can buy in 2023. Remember that the list is not definitive as new products are continuously introduced in the market. But these watches currently offer the best fitness features in the market. The price point of each watch is different and you can pick one that falls within your budget. Be sure to have a good internet connection at home and on your phone to seamlessly enjoy what these fitness watches have to offer.

Why A Shift Toward Automation Testing Is Required

In the fast-paced and ever-evolving technological world, automation testing has become a necessity for software development teams. Automation testing is a process of running automated tests to evaluate the functionality and performance of the software. It’s a vital part of the software development process and helps to ensure that software products are free from bugs and errors.

What is Automation Testing?

Automation testing is the process of running automated tests to evaluate the functionality and performance of the software. Automation testing is a process that automates the manual testing process and allows for repeated execution in a short period. It helps to detect bugs, errors, and other issues in the software before it is released to the market.

The main advantage of Software testing automation services is that it helps to reduce the time and cost associated with software testing. Automation testing is also more efficient than manual testing as it can cover a larger portion of the software. It is also more reliable as the same tests can be run multiple times with the same expected results.

Challenges of Automation Testing

Automation testing can be difficult and time-consuming. It requires a thorough understanding of the software and the different test cases that need to be run. It can also be difficult to maintain the codebase as the software evolves and changes. Additionally, automation tests require significant setup and configuration before they can be executed.

Automation tests can be expensive to develop and maintain. They require significant resources and time to be developed and updated. Additionally, automated tests are not always reliable as they may fail due to environmental or other factors.

Automation tests can be difficult to debug due to their complexity. It can be difficult to determine where errors or bugs occurred in the code.

Automation Testing Process

The automation testing process consists of the following steps:

  1. Analyze the Requirements: The first step is to analyze the requirements and determine the test cases that need to be automated.
  2. Design Test Cases: The next step is to design the test cases that need to be automated.
  3. Create Test Scripts: Once the test cases have been designed, the next step is to create the test scripts that will be used to execute the tests.
  4. Execute the Tests: Once the test scripts have been created, the tests can be executed.
  5. Analyze the Results: The results of the tests can then be analyzed to determine if any bugs or errors were found.
  6. Report the Results: The results of the tests can then be reported to the stakeholders.

Automation Testing Strategies

Several different strategies can be used when it comes to automation testing.

Create a test automation framework

A test automation framework is a set of guidelines and processes that are used to create and execute automated tests. It helps to ensure that tests are consistent and reliable.

Create reusable test scripts

Reusable test scripts are scripts that can be reused to execute the same test multiple times. This helps to save time and resources as the same scripts can be used to test different versions of the software.

Create an automated regression suite

An automated regression suite is a set of tests that are designed to verify that the software is functioning correctly after a change has been made. This helps to ensure that the software is running as expected after a change has been made.

Finally, it is important to create detailed documentation that describes the test cases, test scripts, and results. This helps to ensure that the tests are well-documented and can be understood by other members of the team.

Automation Testing Frameworks

Automation testing frameworks are used to create and execute automated tests. They provide a set of guidelines and processes that are used to create and execute automated tests. Popular automation frameworks include Selenium, Appium, and Cucumber.

Selenium is an open-source automation testing framework that is used to test web applications. It is used to create and execute automated tests for web applications.

Appium is an open-source automation testing framework that is used to test mobile applications. It is used to create and execute automated tests for mobile applications.

Cucumber is an open-source automation testing framework that is used to test software applications. It is used to create and execute automated tests for software applications.

Automation Testing Techniques

Several different techniques can be used for automation testing.

  1. Data-driven testing is a technique in which tests are driven by data from an external source. This helps to ensure that tests are reliable and that the results are accurate.
  2. Keyword-driven testing is a technique in which tests are driven by keywords that are associated with the test cases. This helps to make the tests easier to maintain and update as the keywords can be used to identify the test cases.
  3. Model-based testing is a technique in which tests are driven by a model of the system. This helps to ensure that the tests are reliable and that the results are accurate.

It is important to use test automation tools. Automation testing tools are used to execute the tests and to analyze the results. Popular automation testing tools include HP UFT, Ranorex, and Eggplant.


Automation testing is an essential part of the software development process and helps to ensure that software products are free from bugs and errors. It is a process that automates the manual testing process and allows for repeated execution in a short period. There are several different strategies, tools, best practices, frameworks, and techniques that can be used for automation testing. It helps to reduce the time and cost associated with software testing, and it is more efficient and reliable than manual testing.


What are the benefits of automation testing?

Automation testing can increase efficiency and speed, reduce human error, and provide consistent and comprehensive test coverage.

Why should I switch to automation testing from manual testing?

Switching to automation testing can provide accuracy, increased speed and efficiency, and reduced costs. Automation also makes it easier to maintain a consistent and comprehensive testing process, which is crucial for software quality and reliability.

Author BIO

Gaurav Singh is an Engineering Manager of a leading automation & software development company, Devstringx Technologies. He holds 15+ years of experience, specializing in automation, manual, performance & software testing domains. As a result of his innovative thinking, strong leadership skill, management skill, and commitment to organizational growth, have given him a prominent position in the industry. He enjoys connecting with people and keeping himself updated with the latest in the field of business, & technology. He regularly contributes his knowledge to the leading blogging sites.

How to choose and benefits of partnership with a good contractor to develop your project?

“We specialize in providing professional software development services to clients.” Such a statement will appeal to any potential client, but alas, any applicant-contractor positions himself as a professional. Indeed, if you honestly admit to being unprofessional, then you will not be allowed to come close to any project. But how can a client, who usually does not understand the intricacies of software development, be sure that the contractor really knows his business? If there was a simple answer to this question, then a lot of the money that is now spent on projects that are doomed to failure from day one could be saved. 

This article offers the simplest test of professionalism, comparable to the “litmus test”: it lists the minimum set of skills inherent in a good developer, such as Svitla Systems. An inexperienced client should put such questions to the contractor – and he has the right to count on meaningful answers. I must say right away: I compiled this list with the best of intentions. Programs can be developed with a partial or complete absence of these skills, and this can be quite a professional development. On the other hand, even the presence of all of the above does not guarantee the triumphant completion of the project. So let’s say you’re a client looking for a suitable software development contractor. For you, it can be both a freelancer and a company. 

You can simply arm yourself with this list and ask the candidate all the questions from it in order. Listen to what they have to say and ask them to demonstrate certain skills in practice. At first, you are unlikely to be able to distinguish a brilliant implementation from a trivial one, but gradually you will learn to do it. The bottom line is this: if a developer can easily demonstrate a particular skill, then most likely he is really good at it.

Minimum Skills

The list of skills is arranged in ascending order of their direct impact on the quality of development. The idea of ​​quality counts on three levels: from your (customer’s) point of view, from the point of view of the end user, and from the point of view of the next developer who gets the source code from the first developer.

Source code management system

This technique has a number of different names: source code management (SCM), version control system (RCS or VCS). It is used to track any changes that are made to the code over time. Using such a mechanism, the developer will be able to know exactly what change was made to the code and when, in which version it happened and who made it. Later, such a change can even be undone. If your interlocutor says that he has experience with specific version control tools – for example, Git, Subversion, Perforce or Mercurial, then this issue can be considered resolved. Have a contractor demonstrate a typical sync-edit-edit cycle and try to understand what he’s telling you. Most developers like to brag about their mastery of version control systems.

Task Tracking

The Issue Tracker (and also the Bug Tracker) is a tool that saves all the requests, bug reports, feature requests, and complaints you make. It can be compared to a trouble ticket help system. The issue tracking system provides the developer with a kind of “action plan” and acts as an objective documentation of your communication with the developer. If you can’t directly access the site’s issue tracking system, have the candidate demonstrate a typical scenario, such as filing a bug report. At a minimum, the developer should provide you with a list of resolved issues for each version of your software.

Continuous Integration

This is a relatively new tool, but it has significant potential. It can also be called an “application build server” (build server). There is also talk of a “nightly build”. We assume that the build of your project will be automated whenever possible. In the case of continuous integration, a new build occurs after each submission of a new portion of the source code to the version control system (we talked about it in the first paragraph of our list). Ask a developer to demonstrate what happens automatically after submitting code to source control. Ask the candidate about the “build time” of your project (or other projects). Build time is the period it takes to get a new version that you can test. If the build time is quite short (say, a few minutes) – ask for a small change to the project and wait for the result. It is possible that your developer will touch not only the topic of “continuous integration”, but also “continuous deployment”. 

Questions will pop up related to “staging files”, “build queue”, “test installation” (test installation), etc. That is great! Give him the opportunity to demonstrate “continuous deployment” in practice. You will probably be impressed and the developer will get another chance to trump for you.. e. That’s great! Give him the opportunity to demonstrate “continuous deployment” in practice. You will probably be impressed and the developer will get another chance to trump for you.. e. That’s great! Give him the opportunity to demonstrate “continuous deployment” in practice. You will probably be impressed and the developer will get another chance to trump for you..

Verification (aka testing)

“Will the source code contain automated tests?” Oh, this is a delicate issue. In our business, the expected value of any automated tests is still approaching absolute zero. But, if in response to this question the candidate simply looks at you in bewilderment, this is a bad sign. In the case of a meaningful answer, it is not so important whether “unit tests”, “integration tests”, or even “acceptance tests” are mentioned. More importantly, let the candidate demonstrate to you the implementation of automated tests in your (or similar to your) project. Make sure that the continuous integration server (more about it in the third paragraph) really runs automated tests, and at each build. 

Thus, if any component, supported by tests, fails, you will immediately know about it, and you will not have to deal with errors, which appear again and again in each subsequent version (such a symptom is called “regression”). Perhaps your developer will be a true testing enthusiast. And let every hour of his work cost a lot of money – do not doubt that the money for testing is not spent in vain. Think of this as a safeguard against any unexpected future behavior of your program. 

During development, the tests themselves are likely to be invisible, since they are used internally. Ask the developer to talk about how they organize test reporting. Perhaps a “test coverage” report is being compiled to accompany the list of tasks (such a list is discussed in the second paragraph)? If a specialist claims to practice “test-driven development” – you can be sure that that he tries to conduct the most detailed tests. Let him show you the merits of this approach and model the implementation cycle of a small change in your project. Perhaps this will convince you of the usefulness of such reinsurance.

Project documentation

All software projects, except for the most elementary ones, contain such a mass of details that a person is simply not able to remember them all, and sooner or later he forgets something. Your developer should have some hands-on experience with storing project information, not just “in code” and “in the issue tracker”. A popular way to implement this requirement is to document the project in a wiki form – it is in this form that the well-known Wikipedia is written. Consider using an online text editor with structured information. If you don’t have access to the documentation tool itself, ask the developer to demonstrate it in practice. Ask for an extract from your project’s documentation, for example in PDF or HTML format. Do not find fault with the aesthetic aspects of the document, its main qualities should be – the convenience and ease of finding the right information. In the end, even handwritten documentation will do, as long as it’s in order and kept in one specific place.

Conventions in source code

Almost any source code is machine-readable. But there are such code samples that are completely unreadable for a fellow programmer, and even for the author himself. Ask the developer about what code formatting rules he uses. Perhaps he will actually present you with written rules that actually apply when creating code. Most programming languages ​​have tools that allow you to check formatting against certain rules. These programs are called “code inspection tools” and are ideal for working with a continuous integration server (see third point). However, some aspects of the readability of source code cannot be checked algorithmically, such as the choice of names or the clarity of concepts. Good developers review their code regularly, critically discussing it with colleagues and suggesting optimization options. And a good client openly indicates the need for code review, even if he himself is not going to participate in it. In the long run, you will soon see for yourself how much this improves the quality of programs.

Participation in the life of the community

Software development is a fast-growing field of activity in which life-changing discoveries occur every now and then – no less than once a year or two. A single developer cannot keep track of the development of all the constantly changing tools, phenomena and opportunities in the field of his professional activity. You have to rely on the experience of a community of colleagues and like-minded people, as well as experienced experts who are ready to share their knowledge. Ask the developer how they interact with the peer community. What (technical) books has he recently read? What books have been studied by the entire development team? You, as a client, may not be able to immediately assess how valuable the books named by the developer are, but this is not the most important thing. As with tests, the list of books read by the average programmer may not be very long. It is important that the development team is sufficiently cohesive and has a common base of technical knowledge gleaned from specialized literature. But the matter is not limited to books. After all, printed books just can’t keep up with the development of the industry! Ask about the technical conferences the candidate attends and whether they are in user groups to discuss the programming language used in your project. How is collaboration organized? Does the developer like to share his experience and findings? By the way, for this it is enough just to maintain your own blog (for example, the one you are reading now). Ask a programmer to show you his blog. How many articles did he publish in a certain period of time, what is the response to them? May be, Is your candidate writing articles for a specialty magazine or even working on a book? And now it will be possible to ask other developers for their opinion about the published materials. Perhaps you have found a true professional – it remains only to congratulate you!

But that’s not all, not all…

This list does not exhaust all the skills, concepts and tools that a good specialist should be able to work with. This is just a minimal set that can and should be supplemented and improved. There are whole sets of skills, such as “clean code development” – it’s impossible to mention them all. Ask about what is interesting to the developer himself. Hopefully, his appropriate bluster and professional slang will quickly convince you that you really are dealing with a professional. And you shouldn’t be satisfied with less.


Developing a Supply Chain Strategy

Supply chain strategy occupies an important place in an organization’s strategic planning system. Let’s break down the types of supply chain strategies in detail according to their level in the strategic planning system.


The main types of supply chain strategies


1. Corporate strategy is a general plan of management of the organization, representing a set of decisions concerning the choice of branches and geographical regions of activity of the organization, acquisition or exit from this or that business, distribution of key resources between various spheres of activity, etc. We can say that corporate strategy reflects decisions on the choice of strategic business areas of the organization. In essence, corporate strategy solves the investor’s problem – how to distribute investments in assets in order to maximize the economic return on them. When developing corporate strategy, a key role is played by understanding the trends in markets and the economy as a whole.


2. Business strategy is a plan for the development of a separate area of the organization. For each area (direction) of the organization formulates its own strategy. It defines the mission and objectives of the direction, as well as ways and means of achieving competitiveness of the relevant products or services. Business strategy details the corporate strategy for a particular business area and describes the strategic plan for its development. Business strategy, in turn, contains functional strategies that describe certain aspects of business strategy.


3. Functional strategy is a set of activities and programs of individual functional areas and departments of the organization. Each functional area within the organization (marketing, production, finance, product and service design and development) determines how it contributes to the strategic goals of the organization. The functional strategy is the basis for action within the business. In particular, the marketing strategy is focused on the choice and justification of the product portfolio of the organization and the target markets, financial strategy – the choice of sources of financing the activities of the organization and assessing the cost of capital, the strategy of development and development of products and services – the creation and preparation for launching new products and developing new technologies. Operational strategy should help to implement the marketing strategy and the strategy of design and development of new products, taking into account the limitations dictated by the financial strategy.


4. Operational strategy, therefore, is one of the functional strategies of the organization. It deals with such components as managing production capacity, managing supply chain position and relationships with counterparties in the supply chain, managing production and management technology, and managing organizational development and competencies in the organization.


Supply chain strategy, in turn, can be presented as one of the components of operational strategy, dealing with the management of the production capacity of supply chain links, as well as the management of the position and interaction of links in the supply chain among themselves.


Production capacity is the maximum possible output of products or services by an organization over a planned period. For example, the production of tons of products per year, pieces of products per month, hours of services per quarter, etc.


Decisions on productive capacity of the organization can be divided into two groups: decisions on configuration of productive capacity and decisions on development of productive capacity.


When managing production capacity at the strategic level, the following decisions on its configuration are made:


  1. The overall level of capacity (including reserve capacity, important for enterprise flexibility, process speed, and cost levels);
  2. Distribution of capacity across production and/or service sites (i.e. the extent to which operations are centralized or distributed, and whether vertical integration and cooperative supply chains have been established);
  3. The specialization of production and service sites in the production of the relevant product group or type of services rendered;
  4. physical location of the sites in the world, country or region.


Decisions on the development of production capacity reflect three main moments:


  • The moment of change in production capacity;
  • the scale of incremental change in production capacity;
  • The time it takes to change production capacity.


In terms of the moment of change in production capacity, there are two main strategic approaches:


  • capacity outpaces demand, that is, capacity is brought on line ahead of projected demand for products/services; capacity “catches up” with demand, that is, capacity is brought on line based on customer orders received that regularly exceed available capacity;
  • the imbalance between the available capacity and the demand for products is smoothed with the help of formed stocks (stocks are formed during the period when the capacity exceeds the demand and are consumed during the period when the demand exceeds the capacity).


Each of these approaches has its own advantages and disadvantages.


The scale of capacity change implies two main approaches:


  • changing capacity in large steps, commissioning large facilities;
  • smooth change of capacity through commissioning of small capacity units, in fact – the strategy of following capacity as closely as possible to the value of demand for products/services.
  • The time required to change production capacity must be taken into account when choosing the size of the planning horizon when forming strategic plans.

Decisions to manage an enterprise’s position in the supply chain


They mean the choice by an enterprise of its direct control zone in the supply chain. And this zone of control (links of a chain of deliveries which the organization owns) can be located at the beginning of a chain of deliveries (the first stages – extraction and primary processing of raw materials), in the middle or at the very end (retail trade). A variant with full vertical integration is also possible, when the organization controls absolutely all links in the supply chain: from raw material extraction to the end consumer, though such a wide coverage is not common in practice. Accordingly, the enterprise chooses in which of the links (in which of the links) of a chain of deliveries to the greatest degree provides stable competitiveness.


When selecting a position in the supply chain, the enterprise must also decide on the need to differentiate its supply chain management depending on the market it serves. Different markets may have different requirements in terms of a set of competitiveness factors. It is quite possible to build several supply chains independent from each other, focused on different key success factors (speed of delivery, acceptable costs, product quality, etc.)

Supply chain configuration

The enterprise chooses its location in the supply chain – which links in the supply chain it will directly control through ownership relationships, and which neighboring links in the supply chain it will need to cooperate with. At the same time, there is a link (enterprise) in each supply chain that has the greatest influence on the configuration and organization of the supply chain. In international literature, such an enterprise is sometimes referred to as a channel master. Accordingly, the question of what role the enterprise will play in the supply chain, whether it will set the tone for supply chain practices or be in a subordinate position, following the rules established for the supply chain by its most influential link, is not unimportant for each enterprise in the supply chain.


Another important point is to decide how to respond to those dynamic forces that affect the enterprise in the supply chain (changes in customer demand, material flow dynamics, changes in the balance of power in the supply chain, information flow dynamics), i.e. how the enterprise strategically aligns its supply chain policy in terms of managing demand, inventory, purchasing, production, distribution, etc.


There are two main groups of decisions in the configuration of supply chains: decisions on the management of its position in the supply chain and decisions on the choice of the type of relationships with counterparties (suppliers, customers) in the supply chain.

The choice of the type of relationships with neighbors in the supply chain

This is no less important than the positioning of the company in the supply chain. Here we are talking about strategic decisions such as:


  • choosing a strategy by number of counterparties (e.g., suppliers) – whether to choose a strategy of multiple sources of supply or a single source of supply even when alternative sources are available;
  • choice of type of relationship, which should be sought in interaction with counterparties. The range of relationship types can cover partnerships or even alliances, on the one hand, and the cultivation of fierce competition between suppliers for orders of the organization, on the other hand. When there is a partnership with a counterparty, the organization explores options for its suppliers in order to ensure a more reliable resource base in the long term.


Ultimately, the organization’s task in terms of supply chain strategy development is to create such a configuration of the supply chain that would support the achievement and retention of the target values of competitiveness factors. To this end, in the areas of strategic decision-making (production capacity and supply chain configuration management), the organization decides on the composition of necessary tangible and intangible resources, as well as the composition and properties of operational processes. Resources and processes together form the so-called operational capabilities of the enterprise. The development of an enterprise’s operational capabilities is one of the main objectives of strategic supply chain management.

How to make the most from an Internship?

An internship is a perfect opportunity to gain practical experience in your career field, build up your skills and knowledge, grow a valuable network of contacts for future opportunities, and make yourself more competitive for job positions – all while investing in your own professional development! Embrace this chance by approaching it with an open mind and actively seeking out learning opportunities every step along the way.

As an intern, you have the power to unlock your potential and transform into a well-rounded professional! To do so, approach this experience with enthusiasm and determination. Take initiative by actively searching for opportunities to develop new skills – whether it’s networking within the organization or asking questions at meetings. Doing this will help ensure that every internship is packed full of invaluable lessons! 

Follow these top tips to make your internship worthwhile: 

  1. Get the most out of your internship by setting goals! Take some time to reflect on what you want to gain and achieve through this experience so that when it’s over, you will have plenty of exciting accomplishments under your belt.

  2. Take initiative! Don’t be afraid to step up and show your supervisors you are eager for new learning opportunities. Demonstrate a proactive attitude by asking questions, volunteering for projects, and taking on extra responsibilities – proving that you’re ready to tackle anything thrown your way.

  3. Don’t miss out on a great opportunity – internships can provide the chance to learn from an experienced mentor whose advice and insights could be invaluable! Make sure you ask questions, get feedback, and make the most of this valuable resource.

  4. Networking is an integral part of succeeding in your field, and internships are the perfect place to get started! Get out there and form meaningful relationships with professionals who could help you on your future path.

  5. As the internship wraps up, take some time to appreciate all you’ve achieved! See how much more confident and prepared you are now – your knowledge has grown exponentially over these past few months. Investing in yourself through this experience is sure to pay dividends as you find new challenges ahead of you.

In conclusion, internships are beneficial for many reasons. They provide real-world experience, build your resume, allow you to network and make connections, and help you figure out what you want to do with your life. If you’re thinking of doing an internship, my advice is to just go for it. It might be a little bit daunting at first, but I promise it will be worth it in the end.

How to Calculate Variance – Definition, Formula, and Calculation

The variance is widely used in statistics and mathematics. In statistics, this term is frequently used to calculate the spread of the data from the expected value. It measures the typical distance of the data values in the same units such as meter squares.

There is another term that is more stable to measure the spread of data is the standard deviation. It has the unit’s time and meter. In this lesson, we will discuss the variance in descriptive statistics along with its definition, formula, and calculations.

Variance – introduction

In descriptive statistics, a term that is the average of the squared deviation (square of the difference of the data values from the expected value) from the mean is known as the variance. It is widely used to measure the variability in the distribution of data values.

It is expressed in larger units such as m2 (square meters or meter squares). It is generally used to represent how much variation in the data set there from the expected value. The zero value of the variance indicates that all the values are identical in the data set.

It is denoted by “σ2” or “s2” and is calculated by subtracting the expected value from the data value and taking the square of the deviation and dividing it by the total number of observations.

Types of variance

Variance used two kinds of data sets one is a sample and the other is a population, on the basis of these sets the variance has two types

Population variance & sample variance

In this section, we will discuss the types of variance briefly.

1.  Population variance

Population variance is that type of variance in which the population data set is taken. The population is the measure of all the data such as people in a city or girls in a country. Hence the measure of the spread of the whole data set from the expected value indicates the population variance.

For the calculation of population variance, you have to calculate the quotient of the statistical sum of squares and the total number of data values. It is denoted by “σ2”. The measure of the expected value in population variance is denoted by “μ”.

2.  Sample variance

Sample variance is that type of variance in which the sample (random) data set is taken. The sample is the measure of random data from the whole such as people in a school in a city or girls in a class of a high school. Hence the measure of the spread of sample (random) data set from the expected value indicates the sample variance.

For the calculation of sample variance, you have to calculate the quotient of the statistical sum of squares and the total number of data values minus one. It is denoted by “s2”. The measure of the expected value in sample variance is denoted by “”.

Formulas of the variance

The formula for the population variance is:

σ2 = ∑ (yi – μ)2/N

The formula for the sample variance is:

s2 = ∑ (yiȳ)2/N -1

In the above formulas of the variance,

  • σ2 and s2 are the notations of population and sample variances respectively.
  • Yi is the set of the data values.
  • N is the total number data value.
  • μ & ȳ are the populations mean and sample means respectively.
  • ∑ (yi – μ)2 & ∑ (yi – ȳ)2 are the statistical sum of squares.

A variance calculator can be used to solve the variance problems according to the above formulas of variance.

How to calculate the variance?

Let us take some examples to understand how to calculate the variance.

Example 1: For population variance

Evaluate the population variance if the given data set is:

10, 15, 20, 22, 25, 28


Step 1: First of all, calculate the population means of the given data set.

Sum of population values = 10 + 15 + 20 + 22 + 25 + 28

Sum of population values = 120

Total number of observation = n = 6

Mean of population data set = μ = 120/20 = 60/10 = 30/5

Mean of population data set = μ = 6

Step 2: Now value the deviation of the data values from the population mean.

y1 – μ = 10 – 20 = -10

y2 – μ = 15 – 20 = -5

y3 – μ = 20 – 20 = 0

y4 – μ = 22 – 20 = 2

y5 – μ = 25 – 20 = 5

y6 – μ = 28 – 20 = 8

Step 3: Now make the above differences by taking the square of each term.

(y1 – μ)2 = (-10)2 = 100

(y2 – μ)2 = (-5)2 = 25

(y3 – μ)2 = (0)2 = 0

(y4 – μ)2 = (2)2 = 4

(y5 – μ)2 = (5)2 = 25

(y6 – μ)2 = (8)2 = 64

Step 4: Now calculate the statistical sum of squares by adding all the above-squared deviations.

∑ (yi – μ)2 = 100 + 25 + 0 + 4 + 25 + 64

∑ (yi – μ)2 = 218

Step 5: Take the quotient of the ∑ (yi – μ)2 (sum of squares) and the total number of observations to calculate the population variance of the given data set.

∑ (yi – μ)2 / N = 218 / 6 = 109/3

∑ (yi – μ)2 / N = 36.33

Example 2: For sample variance

Evaluate the sample variance of the given set of observations.

1, 3, 8, 12, 21


Step 1: First of all, calculate the sample mean of the given data set.

Sum of sample values = 1 + 3 + 8 + 12 + 21

Sum of sample values = 45

Total number of observation = n = 5

Sample mean of data set = ȳ = 45/5

Sample mean of data set = ȳ = 9

Step 2: Now value the deviation of the data values from the sample mean.

y1 – ȳ = 1 – 9 = -8

y2 – ȳ = 3 – 9 = -6

y3 – ȳ = 8 – 9 = -1

y4 – ȳ = 12 – 9 = 3

y5 – ȳ = 20 – 9 = 11

Step 3: Now make the above differences by taking the square of each term.

(y1 – ȳ)2 = (-9)2 = 81

(y2 – ȳ)2 = (-6)2 = 36

(y3 – ȳ)2 = (-1)2 = 1

(y4 – ȳ)2 = (3)2 = 9

(y5 – ȳ)2 = (11)2 = 121

Step 4: Now calculate the statistical sum of squares by adding all the above-squared deviations.

∑ (yi – ȳ)2 = 81 + 36 + 1 + 9 + 121

∑ (yi – ȳ)2 = 254

Step 5: Take the quotient of the ∑ (yi – ȳ)2 (sum of squares) and the total number of observations minus 1 to calculate the sample variance of the given data set.

∑ (yi – ȳ)2 / N – 1 = 254 / 5 – 1

∑ (yi – ȳ)2 / N – 1 = 254 / 4 = 127/2

∑ (yi – ȳ)2 / N – 1 = 63.5

Wrap up

In this lesson, we have learned all the basic intent of the variance with the help of solved examples. Now you can grab all the basics of the variance and able to calculate any problem of variance by following the above formulas and solved examples.


Best Language for iOS App Development

Have you begun development on your iOS app yet? If so, you should know about your growth choices. And if the thought of creating them has just occurred to you, the next inquiry would be to find the best iOS course on Udemy and learn which programming language is ideal for creating these applications. If you wish to predict why your device’s customers appreciate this technique so much and what are the possibilities for its development, you’ll need to do some deeper diving into the marketplace and comb through the customer evaluations. So, let’s check out how you can develop apps with the best languages and which ones are truly suitable for them.


Swift is the most popular contemporary computing language for iOS devices. It combines the greatest features of C coding and Objective-C dialects, and it is utilized extensively in a good deal of software development projects now underway. Descent, flexibility, isolation, and separation have all seen several updates, including the addition of current functions like containers, generic medicines, and others. The method of developing apps for iOS has gotten less rigid and more enjoyable in recent years. Storage can be handled dynamically in programs written in the Swift computer program, objects may be created before they are used, and matrices and numbers can be verified for overflowing. Engineers may also readily see any problems in the code, which cuts down on the amount of time required for testing and eliminates the possibility of producing code of poor standard.


Java is a global computer program that has several characteristics with languages that are comparable to C. As a consequence of this, iOS also makes use of an object-oriented broad-sense coding language for ios with tightly typed syntax. The conversion of Java original software to Objective-C for use on this platform is a straightforward process. Gain a deeper understanding of Java syntax. It is among the most widely utilized programming languages for ios development all over the globe, and it is used for a wide variety of purposes, including developing the system, business application development, and backend data analytics. Because of these characteristics, Java helps programmers to “Write Once, Run Anywhere” (WORA). This means that a Java system can be formed on any gadget, and it will be able to execute on any device that contains Java-simulated equipment.


Objective-C is a computer language that was developed as an enhancement of the C computing language to include support for object-oriented operating. In the early 1980s, Tom Love and Brad Cox of the technology business Stepstone, which had originally been known as PPI, were the ones who came up with the idea. It is a language that may be used for a variety of purposes, but its primary application is in the development of software for Apple’s operational platforms and the application programming interfaces (APIs) for those systems, Cocoa and Cocoa Touch. The attractiveness estimate on Stack Overflow places Objective-C at the 27th position, which places it three spots behind Swift. At this time, just 2.39 percent of engineers throughout the globe make utilize it.


Microsoft first presented it to the public in the year 2000 as an alternative to Java, which was its primary competition. It is a kind of coding language that is connected with the.Net infrastructure and uses an object-oriented approach. C# is now the seventh most popular programming language in the world, and it is utilized by 31.4% of all developers. This success may be attributed to the fact that the language’s design is both straightforward and complex. In addition to this, there are a few more considerations that will help you make a better-informed decision about this computer program.

  • Open Source: Because of its popularity among developers, it transitioned into free software in the year 2014.
  • Responding: When it relates to the speed of execution, C# offers comprehensive and quick reaction time throughout the compilation process.
  • Library: C# is quicker than other languages because it provides a wider variety of frameworks to choose from, each of which has its own set of preset routines.


HTML 5 is a front-end software program that is used to develop user interfaces for online applications by specifying the semantics and structure of its content. It is used with CSS and JavaScript in the process of developing interactive user interfaces for iOS mobile applications. Because HTML is among the simplest languages that can be learned by anybody, it is an excellent choice for those who are just starting out in the world of coding. If you want to design user interfaces for iOS applications that can be accessed both online and offline, HTML 5 is the best technology to employ. Because HTML 5, CSS, and JavaScript all operate together, you must also make sure that you have programmers on your staff who are very familiar with all three of ios programming languages. It provides:

  • Large quantity of available talent
  • Cross-platform compatibility
  • It is available for free use
  • Simple to pick up and put to use
  • Creates the ability to use applications offline.


You now have the knowledge necessary to create an iOS app from scratch. Developing your software in-house isn’t the quickest, cheapest, or simplest option anymore after everything you’ve learned. Writing your own code for an iOS app, particularly if you’re just starting out, is a long and arduous process. Hobbyists and those seriously considering a profession in application development may find it rewarding; professionals in the field will find it indispensable.